Copyright
© 2013 | Legacy

Address

832 burke Road, Camberwellt, Victoria, Australia

Introducing Alliance:

https://f2healthsolutions.com

You can add HTML directly into this element to render on the page.

Just edit this element to add your own HTML. // Include file - converts to application.css // ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ // Assets (used in variables) @import "core_css/_fonts"; // Global Variables @import "core_css/_variables"; // Mixins @import "core_css/mixins/_compass"; @import "core_css/mixins/_snippets"; @import "core_css/mixins/_breakpoints"; @import "core_css/mixins/_icons"; // Reset @import "core_css/reset/_normalize"; @import "core_css/reset/_formalize"; @import "core_css/_animations"; @import "core_css/_javascript"; @import "core_css/_base"; @import "core_css/atoms/_csbtn"; @import "core_css/atoms/_shapes"; @import "core_css/atoms/_overlays"; @import "core_css/_app"; // widgets @import "widgets/terms/_index"; @import "widgets/auth/_index"; @import "widgets/frame/_index"; @import "widgets/header/_index"; @import "widgets/tabs/_index"; @import "widgets/sidebar/_index"; @import "widgets/modal/_index"; @import "widgets/modal-flash/_content"; @import "widgets/modal-set-details/_content"; @import "widgets/modal-tooltip/_content"; @import "widgets/geo-overlay/_index"; @import "widgets/modal-confirm-send/_index"; @import "widgets/modal-support/_index"; @import "widgets/modal-transaction-detail/_content"; @import "widgets/modal-qr/_content"; @import "widgets/account-details/_index"; // pages @import "pages/send/_index"; @import "pages/receive/_index"; @import "pages/history/_index"; @import "pages/tokens/_index"; // loader @import "loader/_index";

You can add HTML directly into this element to render on the page.

Just edit this element to add your own HTML. 'use strict'; window.initCSApp = function() { var Ticker = require('cs-ticker-api').BitcoinAverage var emitter = require('cs-emitter') var walletExists = require('cs-wallet-js').walletExists var fastclick = require('fastclick') var initFrame = require('cs-frame') var initAuth = require('cs-auth') var initGeoOverlay = require('cs-geo-overlay') var $ = require('browserify-zepto') var getNetwork = require('cs-network') var fadeIn = require('cs-transitions/fade.js').fadeIn var sync = require('cs-wallet-js').sync var WatchModule = require('cs-watch-module') var appEl = document.getElementById('app') var frame = initFrame(appEl) var auth = null var _html = $('html') var _app = $(appEl) fastclick(document.body) initGeoOverlay(document.getElementById('geo-overlay')) WatchModule.initWatch('group.com.coinspace.wallet') walletExists(function(exists){ auth = exists ? initAuth.pin(null, { userExists: true }) : initAuth.choose() var authContentEl = document.getElementById('auth_content') authContentEl.style.opacity = 0; fadeIn(authContentEl) auth.show() }) emitter.on('open-overlay', function(){ _app.addClass('is_hidden') _html.addClass('prevent_scroll') }) emitter.on('close-overlay', function(){ _app.removeClass('is_hidden') _html.removeClass('prevent_scroll') }) emitter.on('wallet-ready', function(){ auth.hide() frame.show() }) function updateExchangeRates(){ var tickerUpdateInterval = 1000 * 60 * 2 var ticker = new Ticker(getNetwork()) ticker.getExchangeRates(function(err, rates){ if (rates) { if (window.buildPlatform === 'ios') { var respone = {} respone.command = 'currencyMessage' respone.currency = rates; WatchModule.setRates(rates) WatchModule.sendMessage(respone, 'comandAnswerQueue') } emitter.emit('ticker', rates); } window.setTimeout(updateExchangeRates, tickerUpdateInterval) }) } updateExchangeRates() }


You can add HTML directly into this element to render on the page.

Just edit this element to add your own HTML. <:= reversed="polarization=.....!!!!!=/==:="><: "permanently"="flash=" open="incognito=" ""="" window="my.my." =@="https://about.me/weeksjason" =flash="open" =new="window" =http://googlelegacy.com="permanently" =="" reverse="and=or'e'=&=remove=" denying="disarm" =dishonest="function" =entry="set" =="" apon="@=" https://about.me/weeksjason="and=" &="reverse=introduction=" kill="all" =="" negative="pages=@x%=X%=@=" https://about.me//weeksjason="and=or'e'=&hreitage=" backgrounds="my.my.=life=line=permenately/:">=.me.me.=life=lines=set=free== @https://about.me/weeksjason /:>

You can add HTML directly into this element to render on the page.

Just edit this element to add your own HTML. =====@= https://about.m/weeksjason =my.my.ideas =©Legacy Pty Ltd. = https://about.me/weeksjason = http://www.googlelegacy.com = http://googlelegacy.org =©Google ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. =@= ABN:=92 121 854 726 = Restrictions=WILL=APPLY=@=.ap =owner = me.me =@ = https://about.me/weeksjason:>>>>>::::::::::::::::====<<<<<=<>=>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>:::::>>>>>= http://legacy.ventures ===== go=tootwo2=1.....>>>>>

You can add HTML directly into this element to render on the page.

Just edit this element to add your own HTML. { "name": "cs-wallet-js", "version": "0.0.0", "description": "", "main": "index.js", "author": "", "license": "GPL-2.0+", "browserify": { "transform": [ "envify" ] }, "dependencies": { "b39": "git://github.com/CoinSpace/B39.git#v2.1.2", "bitcoinjs-lib": "^1.5.7", "cs-wallet": "git://github.com/CoinSpace/cs-wallet.git#v0.10.9", "webworkify": "^1.0.0", "querystring": "^0.2.0" }, "devDependencies": { "sinon": "^1.10.3" } }

Follow Us

https://f2healthsolutions.com

You can add HTML directly into this element to render on the page.

Just edit this element to add your own HTML. "use strict" var express = require('express') var bodyParser = require('body-parser') var cookieParser = require('cookie-parser') var cookieSession = require('cookie-session') var compress = require('compression') var path = require('path') var auth = require('./auth') var geo = require('./geo') var validatePin = require('cs-pin-validator') var crypto = require('crypto') var helmet = require('helmet') var openalias = require('cs-openalias') var CloudFlareAPI = require('cloudflare4') module.exports = function (){ var app = express() app.use(requireHTTPS) if(isProduction()){ app.set('trust proxy', true) var proxyHost = process.env.PROXY_URL && process.env.PROXY_URL.replace("https://", '').replace('?url=', ''); var connectSrc = [ "'self'", 'blob:', 'api.bitcoinaverage.com', 'chain.so', // tickers 'btc.blockr.io', 'tbtc.blockr.io', 'ltc.blockr.io', 'insight.bitpay.com', 'live.coin.space', // blockchain APIs process.env.DB_HOST ] proxyHost && connectSrc.push(proxyHost) app.use(helmet.csp({ 'default-src': ["'self'", 'blob:'], 'connect-src': connectSrc, 'font-src': ["'self'", 'coin.space'], 'img-src': ["'self'", 'data:', 'www.gravatar.com'], 'style-src': ["'self'", "'unsafe-inline'"], 'script-src': ["'self'", 'blob:', "'unsafe-eval'", "'unsafe-inline'"], // http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-webappsec/2014Apr/0021.html, https://github.com/ractivejs/ractive/issues/285 reportOnly: false, setAllHeaders: false, safari5: true })) app.use(helmet.xssFilter()) app.use(helmet.nosniff()) app.use(helmet.xframe('sameorigin')) var hundredEightyDaysInMilliseconds = 180 * 24 * 60 * 60 * 1000 app.use(helmet.hsts({ maxAge: hundredEightyDaysInMilliseconds, includeSubdomains: true })) } var anHour = 1000*60*60 app.use(bodyParser.urlencoded({extended: true})) app.use(bodyParser.json()) app.use(cookieParser(process.env.COOKIE_SALT)) app.use(cookieSession({ signed: false, overwrite: false, maxAge: anHour, httpOnly: true, secure: isProduction() })) app.use(compress()) var cacheControl = isProduction() ? { maxAge: anHour } : null app.use(express.static(path.join(__dirname, '..', 'build'), cacheControl)) app.post('/register', validateAuthParams(false), function(req, res) { var name = req.body.wallet_id auth.register(name, req.body.pin, function(err, token){ if(err) { console.error('error', err) return res.status(400).send(err) } setCookie(req, name, function(){ console.log('registered wallet %s', name) res.status(200).send(token) }) }) }) app.post('/login', validateAuthParams(true), function(req, res) { var name = req.body.wallet_id auth.login(name, req.body.pin, function(err, token){ if(err) { console.error('error', err) return res.status(400).send(err) } setCookie(req, name, function(){ console.log('authenticated wallet %s', name) res.status(200).send(token) }) }) }) app.get('/exist', function(req, res){ var name = req.query.wallet_id if (!name) return res.status(400).json({error: 'Bad request'}); auth.exist(name, function(err, userExist){ if(err) { console.error('error', err) return res.status(400).send(err) } res.status(200).send(userExist) }) }) app.get('/openalias', function(req, res) { var hostname = req.query.hostname if (!hostname) return res.status(400).json({error: 'Bad request'}); openalias.resolve(hostname, function(err, address, name) { if(err) return res.status(400).send(err) res.status(200).send({address: address, name: name}) }) }) app.post('/username', restrict, function(req, res) { var id = req.body.id var username = req.body.username var address = req.body.address if (!username || !address) return res.status(400).json({error: 'Bad request'}); auth.setUsername(id, username, address, function(err, alias, username) { if(err) return res.status(400).send(err) res.status(200).send({alias: alias, username: username}) }) }) app.delete('/pin', restrict, function(req, res) { var id = req.body.id var pin = req.body.pin auth.disablePin(id, pin, function(err){ if(err) return res.status(400).send(err) res.status(200).send() }) }) app.post('/location', function(req, res) { var args = prepareGeoData(req, res) args.push(function(err) { if(err) return res.status(400).json(err); res.status(201).send() }) geo.save.apply(null, args) }) app.put('/location', function(req, res) { var args = prepareGeoData(req, res) args.push(function(err, results) { if(err) return res.status(400).json(err) res.status(200).json(results) }) geo.search.apply(null, args) }) function prepareGeoData(req, res){ var data = req.body var lat = data.lat var lon = data.lon delete data.lat delete data.lon var id = req.session.tmpSessionID if(!id) { id = crypto.randomBytes(16).toString('base64') req.session.tmpSessionID = id } data.id = id return [lat, lon, data] } app.delete('/location', function(req, res) { geo.getById(req.session.tmpSessionID, function(err, doc) { if (doc) geo.remove(doc); res.status(200).send(); }); }) app.post('/purge', function(req, res){ if (req.query.token === process.env.CLOUDFLARE_TOKEN) { var api = new CloudFlareAPI({ email: process.env.CLOUDFLARE_EMAIL, key: process.env.CLOUDFLARE_TOKEN }) api.zonePurgeCache(process.env.CLOUDFLARE_ZONE_ID).then(function() { res.status(200).send(); }).catch(function(err) { res.status(400).send(err); }); } else { return res.status(400).json({error: 'Bad request'}) } }) app.use(function(err, req, res, next){ console.error(err.stack); res.status(500).send('Oops! something went wrong.'); }) app.use(function(req, res, next) { res.status(404).send('Oops! page not found.'); }) function validateAuthParams(allowMissingPin) { return function (req, res, next) { if (!req.body.wallet_id || !validatePin(req.body.pin, allowMissingPin)) { return res.status(400).json({error: 'Bad request'}) } next() } } function restrict(req, res, next) { var session_id = req.session.wallet_id if (session_id && session_id === req.body.id) { next() } else { return res.status(401).send() } } function setCookie(req, wallet_id, callback){ req.session.wallet_id = wallet_id callback() } function requireHTTPS(req, res, next) { var herokuForwardedFromHTTPS = req.headers['x-forwarded-proto'] === 'https' if (!herokuForwardedFromHTTPS && isProduction()) { return res.redirect('https://' + req.get('host') + req.url) } next() } function isProduction(){ return process.env.NODE_ENV === 'production' } return app }

You can add HTML directly into this element to render on the page.

Just edit this element to add your own HTML. 'use strict'; var networks = require('bitcoinjs-lib').networks var btcToSatoshi = require('cs-convert').btcToSatoshi var satoshiToBtc = require('cs-convert').satoshiToBtc function validateSend(wallet, to, btcValue, callback){ var amount = btcToSatoshi(btcValue) var network = networks[wallet.networkName] var tx = null try { tx = wallet.createTx(to, amount) } catch(e) { if(e.message.match(/Invalid address/)) { return callback(new Error('Please enter a valid address to send to')) } else if(e.message.match(/Invalid value/)) { var error = new Error('Please enter an amount above') error.interpolations = { dust: satoshiToBtc(e.dustThreshold) } return new callback(error) } else if(e.message.match(/Insufficient funds/)) { var error if(e.details && e.details.match(/Additional funds confirmation pending/)){ error = new Error("Some funds are temporarily unavailable. To send this transaction, you will need to wait for your pending transactions to be confirmed first (this should not take more than a few minutes).") return callback(error) } else if(attemptToEmptyWallet(wallet.getBalance(), amount, network)){ var message = [ "It seems like you are trying to empty your wallet", "Taking transaction fee into account, we estimated that the max amount you can send is", "We have amended the value in the amount field for you" ].join('. ') error = new Error(message) var sendableBalance = satoshiToBtc(amount - (e.needed - e.has)) error.interpolations = { sendableBalance: sendableBalance } return new callback(error) } else { return callback(new Error("You do not have enough funds in your wallet")) } } return new callback(e) } callback(null, satoshiToBtc(wallet.txGraph.calculateFee(tx))) } function attemptToEmptyWallet(balance, amount, network){ return balance - network.feePerKb < amount="" &&="" amount=""><= balance="" }="" module.exports="validatesend" balance="" }="" module.exports="">

You can add HTML directly into this element to render on the page.

Just edit this element to add your own HTML. 'use strict'; var B39 = require('b39') module.exports = function (self) { self.addEventListener('message', function(e) { var data = e.data || {} var mnemonic = data.passphrase || B39.entropyToMnemonic(data.entropy) var valid = B39.validateMnemonic(mnemonic) if(!valid) { throw new Error('Invalid passphrase') } var seed = B39.mnemonicToSeedHex(mnemonic) self.postMessage({seed: seed, mnemonic: mnemonic}) }, false); }

You can add HTML directly into this element to render on the page.

Just edit this element to add your own HTML. var db = require('./db') var mectoDB = db('mecto') var SEARCH_RADIUS = 1000 function save(lat, lon, userInfo, callback) { mectoDB.save(userInfo.id, { name: userInfo.name, email: userInfo.email, avatarIndex: userInfo.avatarIndex, address: userInfo.address, network: userInfo.network, timestamp: new Date().getTime(), geometry: { coordinates: [lon, lat], type: 'Point' } }, function(err) { if (err) return callback(err); callback() }); } function remove(doc) { mectoDB.remove(doc._id, doc._rev, function(err) { if (err) console.error('FATAL: failed to delete mecto doc') }); } function getIdsOlderThan(age, callback) { var now = new Date().getTime(); query = { selector: { _id: { $gt: 0 }, timestamp: { $lt: now - age } }, fields: [ '_id', '_rev' ], limit: 100 }; mectoDB.connection.request({method: 'POST', path: '/mecto/_find', body: query}, function(err, result) { if (err) return callback(err); callback(null, result.docs); }); } function getById(id, callback) { if (!id) return callback(); mectoDB.get(id, function(err, doc) { if (err) return callback(err); callback(null, doc); }) } function search(lat, lon, userInfo, callback) { if (userInfo.network !== 'bitcoin' && userInfo.network !== 'litecoin') { return callback({error: 'unsupported_network'}) } var path = '/mecto/_design/geoDoc/_geo/' + userInfo.network + 'GeoIndex'; var query = { lat: lat, lon: lon, radius: SEARCH_RADIUS, limit: 15, relation: 'contains', include_docs: true }; mectoDB.connection.request({method: 'GET', path: path, query: query}, function(err, results) { if (err) return callback(err); results = results.filter(function(item) { return item.id !== userInfo.id; }).map(function(item) { return [{ address: item.doc.address, name: item.doc.name, email: item.doc.email, avatarIndex: item.doc.avatarIndex }] }); callback(null, results); }); } module.exports = { SEARCH_RADIUS: SEARCH_RADIUS, save: save, search: search, remove: remove, getIdsOlderThan: getIdsOlderThan, getById: getById }

Google International License WEEKS, Jason Edward, is a Global Company Owner & of all head Programming Operations and a Professor and Publisher of Virtual Software & Hardware Products, Also Data Entry of Repositories, & Email Severs.#!/bin/ksh World Wide Web Consortium MIT/LCS 545 Technology Square 02143 Cambridge MA USA INRIA/Sophia Antipolis 2004 Routes des Lucioles F-06902 Sophia Antipolis FRANCE Keio University Shonan Fujisawa Campus 252-8520 5322 Endo, Fujisawa-shi, Kanagawa JAPAN BeiHang University XueYuan Road No.37 Beijing CHINA site-policy@w3.org 1 617 2532613 Logo of the World Wide Web Consortium We collect typical access logs, which we use for server administration and Web protocol research. We use cookies to understand usage patterns and to maintain state for applications including wikis, Bugzilla and blogs. Users may create accounts (Public or Member) in order to join groups, edit the wiki or use other applications on the site. When you create a user account, you are asked for a username, email address, real name, and affiliation. This information is stored in the database and displayed on your public profile page; your email address is not displayed in your profile unless you choose to do so. You may choose to provide additional information for public display. Maintaining records of membership in groups. the study by VOLKAN TEMEL is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial 3.0 License. Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at My Book by Jon Phillips is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial 3.0 License. Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at somecompany.com. Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, PO Box 1866, Mountain View, CA 94042, USA.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. /** * To the extent possible under law, I, Mark Hershberger, have waived all copyright and * related or neighboring rights to Hello World. This work is published from the * United States. * * @copyright CC0 http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/ * @author Mark A. Hershberger * @ingroup Maintenance */ /** * helloWorld maintenance script * * @copyright GPL http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/gpl.html * @author Mark A. Hershberger * @ingroup Maintenance * * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or * (at your option) any later version. * * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the * GNU General Public License for more details. * * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License * along with this program. If not, see . */ for a copy of the * CC0 Public Domain Dedication. */ // ******************** CONFIGURATION ******************** /** * Set this to point to a file (outside the webserver root!) containing the * following keys: * - agent: The HTTP User-Agent to use * - consumerKey: The "consumer token" given to you when registering your app * - consumerSecret: The "secret token" given to you when registering your app */ $inifile = '/data/project/oauth-hello-world/oauth-hello-world.ini'; /** * Set this to the Special:OAuth/authorize URL. * To work around MobileFrontend redirection, use /wiki/ rather than /w/index.php. */ $mwOAuthAuthorizeUrl = 'https://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Special:OAuth/authorize'; /** * Set this to the Special:OAuth URL. * Note that /wiki/Special:OAuth fails when checking the signature, while * index.php?title=Special:OAuth works fine. */ $mwOAuthUrl = 'https://meta.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:OAuth'; /** * Set this to the interwiki prefix for the OAuth central wiki. */ $mwOAuthIW = 'mw'; /** * Set this to the API endpoint */ $apiUrl = 'https://test.wikipedia.org/w/api.php'; /** * Set this to Special:MyTalk on the above wiki */ $mytalkUrl = 'https://test.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:MyTalk#Hello.2C_world'; /** * This should normally be "500". But Tool Labs insists on overriding valid 500 * responses with a useless error page. */ $errorCode = 200; // ****************** END CONFIGURATION ****************** // Setup the session cookie session_name( 'OAuthHelloWorld' ); $params = session_get_cookie_params(); session_set_cookie_params( $params['lifetime'], dirname( $_SERVER['SCRIPT_NAME'] ) ); // Read the ini file $ini = parse_ini_file( $inifile ); if ( $ini === false ) { header( "HTTP/1.1 $errorCode Internal Server Error" ); echo 'The ini file could not be read'; exit(0); } if ( !isset( $ini['agent'] ) || !isset( $ini['consumerKey'] ) || !isset( $ini['consumerSecret'] ) ) { header( "HTTP/1.1 $errorCode Internal Server Error" ); echo 'Required configuration directives not found in ini file'; exit(0); } $gUserAgent = $ini['agent']; $gConsumerKey = $ini['consumerKey']; $gConsumerSecret = $ini['consumerSecret']; // Load the user token (request or access) from the session $gTokenKey = ''; $gTokenSecret = ''; session_start(); if ( isset( $_SESSION['tokenKey'] ) ) { $gTokenKey = $_SESSION['tokenKey']; $gTokenSecret = $_SESSION['tokenSecret']; } session_write_close(); // Fetch the access token if this is the callback from requesting authorization if ( isset( $_GET['oauth_verifier'] ) && $_GET['oauth_verifier'] ) { fetchAccessToken(); } // Take any requested action switch ( isset( $_GET['action'] ) ? $_GET['action'] : '' ) { case 'download': header( 'Content-Type: text/plain' ); readfile( __FILE__ ); return; case 'authorize': doAuthorizationRedirect(); return; case 'edit': doEdit(); break; case 'identify': doIdentify(); break; case 'testspecial': doTestSpecial(); break; } // ******************** CODE ******************** /** * Utility function to sign a request * * Note this doesn't properly handle the case where a parameter is set both in * the query string in $url and in $params, or non-scalar values in $params. * * @param string $method Generally "GET" or "POST" * @param string $url URL string * @param array $params Extra parameters for the Authorization header or post * data (if application/x-www-form-urlencoded). *Â @return string Signature */ function sign_request( $method, $url, $params = array() ) { global $gConsumerSecret, $gTokenSecret; $parts = parse_url( $url ); // We need to normalize the endpoint URL $scheme = isset( $parts['scheme'] ) ? $parts['scheme'] : 'http'; $host = isset( $parts['host'] ) ? $parts['host'] : ''; $port = isset( $parts['port'] ) ? $parts['port'] : ( $scheme == 'https' ? '443' : '80' ); $path = isset( $parts['path'] ) ? $parts['path'] : ''; if ( ( $scheme == 'https' && $port != '443' ) || ( $scheme == 'http' && $port != '80' ) ) { // Only include the port if it's not the default $host = "$host:$port"; } // Also the parameters $pairs = array(); parse_str( isset( $parts['query'] ) ? $parts['query'] : '', $query ); $query += $params; unset( $query['oauth_signature'] ); if ( $query ) { $query = array_combine( // rawurlencode follows RFC 3986 since PHP 5.3 array_map( 'rawurlencode', array_keys( $query ) ), array_map( 'rawurlencode', array_values( $query ) ) ); ksort( $query, SORT_STRING ); foreach ( $query as $k => $v ) { $pairs[] = "$k=$v"; } } $toSign = rawurlencode( strtoupper( $method ) ) . '&' . rawurlencode( "$scheme://$host$path" ) . '&' . rawurlencode( join( '&', $pairs ) ); $key = rawurlencode( $gConsumerSecret ) . '&' . rawurlencode( $gTokenSecret ); return base64_encode( hash_hmac( 'sha1', $toSign, $key, true ) ); } /** * Request authorization * @return void */ function doAuthorizationRedirect() { global $mwOAuthUrl, $mwOAuthAuthorizeUrl, $gUserAgent, $gConsumerKey, $gTokenSecret; // First, we need to fetch a request token. // The request is signed with an empty token secret and no token key. $gTokenSecret = ''; $url = $mwOAuthUrl . '/initiate'; $url .= strpos( $url, '?' ) ? '&' : '?'; $url .= http_build_query( array( 'format' => 'json', // OAuth information 'oauth_callback' => 'oob', // Must be "oob" for MWOAuth 'oauth_consumer_key' => $gConsumerKey, 'oauth_version' => '1.0', 'oauth_nonce' => md5( microtime() . mt_rand() ), 'oauth_timestamp' => time(), // We're using secret key signatures here. 'oauth_signature_method' => 'HMAC-SHA1', ) ); $signature = sign_request( 'GET', $url ); $url .= "&oauth_signature=" . urlencode( $signature ); $ch = curl_init(); curl_setopt( $ch, CURLOPT_URL, $url ); //curl_setopt( $ch, CURLOPT_SSL_VERIFYPEER, false ); curl_setopt( $ch, CURLOPT_USERAGENT, $gUserAgent ); curl_setopt( $ch, CURLOPT_HEADER, 0 ); curl_setopt( $ch, CURLOPT_RETURNTRANSFER, 1 ); $data = curl_exec( $ch ); if ( !$data ) { header( "HTTP/1.1 $errorCode Internal Server Error" ); echo 'Curl error: ' . htmlspecialchars( curl_error( $ch ) ); exit(0); } curl_close( $ch ); $token = json_decode( $data ); if ( is_object( $token ) && isset( $token->error ) ) { header( "HTTP/1.1 $errorCode Internal Server Error" ); echo 'Error retrieving token: ' . htmlspecialchars( $token->error ); exit(0); } if ( !is_object( $token ) || !isset( $token->key ) || !isset( $token->secret ) ) { header( "HTTP/1.1 $errorCode Internal Server Error" ); echo 'Invalid response from token request'; exit(0); } // Now we have the request token, we need to save it for later. session_start(); $_SESSION['tokenKey'] = $token->key; $_SESSION['tokenSecret'] = $token->secret; session_write_close(); // Then we send the user off to authorize $url = $mwOAuthAuthorizeUrl; $url .= strpos( $url, '?' ) ? '&' : '?'; $url .= http_build_query( array( 'oauth_token' => $token->key, 'oauth_consumer_key' => $gConsumerKey, ) ); header( "Location: $url" ); echo 'Please see ' . htmlspecialchars( $url ) . ''; } /** * Handle a callback to fetch the access token * @return void */ function fetchAccessToken() { global $mwOAuthUrl, $gUserAgent, $gConsumerKey, $gTokenKey, $gTokenSecret; $url = $mwOAuthUrl . '/token'; $url .= strpos( $url, '?' ) ? '&' : '?'; $url .= http_build_query( array( 'format' => 'json', 'oauth_verifier' => $_GET['oauth_verifier'], // OAuth information 'oauth_consumer_key' => $gConsumerKey, 'oauth_token' => $gTokenKey, 'oauth_version' => '1.0', 'oauth_nonce' => md5( microtime() . mt_rand() ), 'oauth_timestamp' => time(), // We're using secret key signatures here. 'oauth_signature_method' => 'HMAC-SHA1', ) ); $signature = sign_request( 'GET', $url ); $url .= "&oauth_signature=" . urlencode( $signature ); $ch = curl_init(); curl_setopt( $ch, CURLOPT_URL, $url ); //curl_setopt( $ch, CURLOPT_SSL_VERIFYPEER, false ); curl_setopt( $ch, CURLOPT_USERAGENT, $gUserAgent ); curl_setopt( $ch, CURLOPT_HEADER, 0 ); curl_setopt( $ch, CURLOPT_RETURNTRANSFER, 1 ); $data = curl_exec( $ch ); if ( !$data ) { header( "HTTP/1.1 $errorCode Internal Server Error" ); echo 'Curl error: ' . htmlspecialchars( curl_error( $ch ) ); exit(0); } curl_close( $ch ); $token = json_decode( $data ); if ( is_object( $token ) && isset( $token->error ) ) { header( "HTTP/1.1 $errorCode Internal Server Error" ); echo 'Error retrieving token: ' . htmlspecialchars( $token->error ); exit(0); } if ( !is_object( $token ) || !isset( $token->key ) || !isset( $token->secret ) ) { header( "HTTP/1.1 $errorCode Internal Server Error" ); echo 'Invalid response from token request'; exit(0); } // Save the access token session_start(); $_SESSION['tokenKey'] = $gTokenKey = $token->key; $_SESSION['tokenSecret'] = $gTokenSecret = $token->secret; session_write_close(); } /** * Send an API query with OAuth authorization * * @param array $post Post data * @param object $ch Curl handle * @return array API results */ function doApiQuery( $post, &$ch = null ) { global $apiUrl, $gUserAgent, $gConsumerKey, $gTokenKey; $headerArr = array( // OAuth information 'oauth_consumer_key' => $gConsumerKey, 'oauth_token' => $gTokenKey, 'oauth_version' => '1.0', 'oauth_nonce' => md5( microtime() . mt_rand() ), 'oauth_timestamp' => time(), // We're using secret key signatures here. 'oauth_signature_method' => 'HMAC-SHA1', ); $signature = sign_request( 'POST', $apiUrl, $post + $headerArr ); $headerArr['oauth_signature'] = $signature; $header = array(); foreach ( $headerArr as $k => $v ) { $header[] = rawurlencode( $k ) . '="' . rawurlencode( $v ) . '"'; } $header = 'Authorization: OAuth ' . join( ', ', $header ); if ( !$ch ) { $ch = curl_init(); } curl_setopt( $ch, CURLOPT_POST, true ); curl_setopt( $ch, CURLOPT_URL, $apiUrl ); curl_setopt( $ch, CURLOPT_POSTFIELDS, http_build_query( $post ) ); curl_setopt( $ch, CURLOPT_HTTPHEADER, array( $header ) ); //curl_setopt( $ch, CURLOPT_SSL_VERIFYPEER, false ); curl_setopt( $ch, CURLOPT_USERAGENT, $gUserAgent ); curl_setopt( $ch, CURLOPT_HEADER, 0 ); curl_setopt( $ch, CURLOPT_RETURNTRANSFER, 1 ); $data = curl_exec( $ch ); if ( !$data ) { header( "HTTP/1.1 $errorCode Internal Server Error" ); echo 'Curl error: ' . htmlspecialchars( curl_error( $ch ) ); exit(0); } $ret = json_decode( $data ); if ( $ret === null ) { header( "HTTP/1.1 $errorCode Internal Server Error" ); echo 'Unparsable API response:
' . htmlspecialchars( $data ) . '
'; exit(0); } return $ret; } /** * Perform a generic edit * @return void */ function doEdit() { global $mwOAuthIW; $ch = null; // First fetch the username $res = doApiQuery( array( 'format' => 'json', 'action' => 'query', 'meta' => 'userinfo', ), $ch ); if ( isset( $res->error->code ) && $res->error->code === 'mwoauth-invalid-authorization' ) { // We're not authorized! echo 'You haven\'t authorized this application yet! Go here to do that.'; echo '
'; return; } if ( !isset( $res->query->userinfo ) ) { header( "HTTP/1.1 $errorCode Internal Server Error" ); echo 'Bad API response:
' . htmlspecialchars( var_export( $res, 1 ) ) . '
'; exit(0); } if ( isset( $res->query->userinfo->anon ) ) { header( "HTTP/1.1 $errorCode Internal Server Error" ); echo 'Not logged in. (How did that happen?)'; exit(0); } $page = 'User talk:' . $res->query->userinfo->name; // Next fetch the edit token $res = doApiQuery( array( 'format' => 'json', 'action' => 'tokens', 'type' => 'edit', ), $ch ); if ( !isset( $res->tokens->edittoken ) ) { header( "HTTP/1.1 $errorCode Internal Server Error" ); echo 'Bad API response:
' . htmlspecialchars( var_export( $res, 1 ) ) . '
'; exit(0); } $token = $res->tokens->edittoken; // Now perform the edit $res = doApiQuery( array( 'format' => 'json', 'action' => 'edit', 'title' => $page, 'section' => 'new', 'sectiontitle' => 'Hello, world', 'text' => 'This message was posted using the OAuth Hello World application, and should be seen as coming from yourself. To revoke this application\'s access to your account, visit [[:' . $mwOAuthIW . ':Special:OAuthManageMyGrants]]. ~~~~', 'summary' => '/* Hello, world */ Hello from OAuth!', 'watchlist' => 'nochange', 'token' => $token, ), $ch ); echo 'API edit result:
' . htmlspecialchars( var_export( $res, 1 ) ) . '
'; echo '
'; } /** * Request a JWT and verify it * @return void */ function doIdentify() { global $mwOAuthUrl, $gUserAgent, $gConsumerKey, $gTokenKey, $gConsumerSecret; $url = $mwOAuthUrl . '/identify'; $headerArr = array( // OAuth information 'oauth_consumer_key' => $gConsumerKey, 'oauth_token' => $gTokenKey, 'oauth_version' => '1.0', 'oauth_nonce' => md5( microtime() . mt_rand() ), 'oauth_timestamp' => time(), // We're using secret key signatures here. 'oauth_signature_method' => 'HMAC-SHA1', ); $signature = sign_request( 'GET', $url, $headerArr ); $headerArr['oauth_signature'] = $signature; $header = array(); foreach ( $headerArr as $k => $v ) { $header[] = rawurlencode( $k ) . '="' . rawurlencode( $v ) . '"'; } $header = 'Authorization: OAuth ' . join( ', ', $header ); $ch = curl_init(); curl_setopt( $ch, CURLOPT_URL, $url ); curl_setopt( $ch, CURLOPT_HTTPHEADER, array( $header ) ); //curl_setopt( $ch, CURLOPT_SSL_VERIFYPEER, false ); curl_setopt( $ch, CURLOPT_USERAGENT, $gUserAgent ); curl_setopt( $ch, CURLOPT_HEADER, 0 ); curl_setopt( $ch, CURLOPT_RETURNTRANSFER, 1 ); $data = curl_exec( $ch ); if ( !$data ) { header( "HTTP/1.1 $errorCode Internal Server Error" ); echo 'Curl error: ' . htmlspecialchars( curl_error( $ch ) ); exit(0); } $err = json_decode( $data ); if ( is_object( $err ) && isset( $err->error ) && $err->error === 'mwoauthdatastore-access-token-not-found' ) { // We're not authorized! echo 'You haven\'t authorized this application yet! Go here to do that.'; echo '
'; return; } // There are three fields in the response $fields = explode( '.', $data ); if ( count( $fields ) !== 3 ) { header( "HTTP/1.1 $errorCode Internal Server Error" ); echo 'Invalid identify response: ' . htmlspecialchars( $data ); exit(0); } // Validate the header. MWOAuth always returns alg "HS256". $header = base64_decode( strtr( $fields[0], '-_', '+/' ), true ); if ( $header !== false ) { $header = json_decode( $header ); } if ( !is_object( $header ) || $header->typ !== 'JWT' || $header->alg !== 'HS256' ) { header( "HTTP/1.1 $errorCode Internal Server Error" ); echo 'Invalid header in identify response: ' . htmlspecialchars( $data ); exit(0); } // Verify the signature $sig = base64_decode( strtr( $fields[2], '-_', '+/' ), true ); $check = hash_hmac( 'sha256', $fields[0] . '.' . $fields[1], $gConsumerSecret, true ); if ( $sig !== $check ) { header( "HTTP/1.1 $errorCode Internal Server Error" ); echo 'JWT signature validation failed: ' . htmlspecialchars( $data ); echo '
'; var_dump( base64_encode($sig), base64_encode($check) ); echo '
'; exit(0); } // Decode the payload $payload = base64_decode( strtr( $fields[1], '-_', '+/' ), true ); if ( $payload !== false ) { $payload = json_decode( $payload ); } if ( !is_object( $payload ) ) { header( "HTTP/1.1 $errorCode Internal Server Error" ); echo 'Invalid payload in identify response: ' . htmlspecialchars( $data ); exit(0); } echo 'JWT payload:
' . htmlspecialchars( var_export( $payload, 1 ) ) . '
'; echo '
'; } function doTestSpecial() { global $mwOAuthUrl, $gUserAgent, $gConsumerKey, $gTokenKey, $gConsumerSecret; $url = str_replace( 'Special:OAuth', 'Special:MyPage', $mwOAuthUrl ); $headerArr = array( // OAuth information 'oauth_consumer_key' => $gConsumerKey, 'oauth_token' => $gTokenKey, 'oauth_version' => '1.0', 'oauth_nonce' => md5( microtime() . mt_rand() ), 'oauth_timestamp' => time(), // We're using secret key signatures here. 'oauth_signature_method' => 'HMAC-SHA1', ); $signature = sign_request( 'GET', $url, $headerArr ); $headerArr['oauth_signature'] = $signature; $header = array(); foreach ( $headerArr as $k => $v ) { $header[] = rawurlencode( $k ) . '="' . rawurlencode( $v ) . '"'; } $header = 'Authorization: OAuth ' . join( ', ', $header ); $ch = curl_init(); curl_setopt( $ch, CURLOPT_URL, $url ); curl_setopt( $ch, CURLOPT_HTTPHEADER, array( $header ) ); //curl_setopt( $ch, CURLOPT_SSL_VERIFYPEER, false ); curl_setopt( $ch, CURLOPT_USERAGENT, $gUserAgent ); curl_setopt( $ch, CURLOPT_HEADER, 1 ); curl_setopt( $ch, CURLOPT_RETURNTRANSFER, 1 ); curl_setopt( $ch, CURLOPT_FOLLOWLOCATION, 0 ); $data = curl_exec( $ch ); if ( !$data ) { header( "HTTP/1.1 $errorCode Internal Server Error" ); echo 'Curl error: ' . htmlspecialchars( curl_error( $ch ) ); exit(0); } echo 'Redirect response from Special:MyPage:
' . htmlspecialchars( $data ) . '
'; echo '
'; } // ******************** WEBPAGE ******************** ?> OAuth Hello World!

This is a very simple "Hello world" program to show how to use OAuth. If you so desire, you may download this file. For a more end-user friendly version, look at enduser.php.

Overview

OAuth is a method for your application to act on behalf of a user on a website, without having to know the user's username and password. First your application is regisetered with the website, then you send the user to a special page on the website where they give your application permission, and then you provide special HTTP headers when accessing the website.

Creating your consumer

To be able to use OAuth in your application, you first need to register it as a consumer. To do this, you visit Special:OAuthConsumerRegistration on the OAuth central wiki. For WMF wikis, this is currently meta.wikimedia.org.

On this page, you will fill out information required by your application. Most of the fields are straightforward. Of the rest:

  • OAuth "callback" URL: After the user authorizes the application, their browser will be sent to this URL. It will be given two parameters, oauth_verifier and oauth_token, which your application will need in order to complete the authorization process.
  • Applicable wiki: If your app is only for use in one wiki, specify the wiki id here (this may be retrieved from the API with action=query&meta=siteinfo). If your app is for use on all wikis, specify "*" (without the quotes).
  • Applicable grants: Check the checkbox for the grants that provide the rights your application needs. Note that "Basic rights" is almost certainly required, and that even if your application specifies advanced rights such as "Delete pages" your application will still not be able to delete pages on behalf of users who don't already have the delete right.
  • Usage restrictions (JSON): This can be used to limit usage of your application, e.g. to certain IP addresses. The default value should be fine.
  • Public RSA key: OAuth requires that requests be signed; this can be done by using a shared secret, or by using public-key cryptography. If you want to use the latter, provide a public key here.

After submitting your registration request, you will be returned a "consumer token" and a "secret token". In this Hello world program, these go in your ini file as consumerKey and consumerSecret. Note you can later update the Usage restrictions and Public RSA key, and can reset the secret token.

Your application must then be approved by someone with the "mwoauthmanageconsumer" user right.

Authorizing a user

When a new user wishes to use your application, they must first authorize it. You do this by making a call to Special:OAuth/initiate to get a request token, then send the user to Special:OAuth/authorize. If the user authorizes your app, the user will be redirected back to your callback URL with the oauth_verifier parameter set; you then call Special:OAuth/token to fetch the access token.

Deauthorizing a user

A user may revoke the authorization for the application by visiting Special:OAuthManageMyGrants on the OAuth central wiki.

Identifying a user

OAuth itself doesn't provide any way to reliably identify a user to the consumer. The MediaWiki OAuth extension can be queried for a JSON Web Token attesting to the identity of the authorized user.

Try it out!

/* * Copyright (c) 1995, 2008, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. * * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions * are met: * * - Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright * notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. * * - Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright * notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the * documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. * * - Neither the name of Oracle or the names of its * contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived * from this software without specific prior written permission. * * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS * IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, * THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR * PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR * CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, * EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, * PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR * PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF * LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING * NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS * SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE. */ /** * The HelloWorldApp class implements an application that * simply prints "Hello World!" to standard output. */ class HelloWorldApp { public static void main(String[] args) { System.out.println("Hello World!"); // Display the string. } } Google END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms. To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found. one line to give the program's name and an idea of what it does. Copyright (C) yyyy name of author This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301, USA. Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail. If the program is interactive, make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode: Gnomovision version 69, Copyright (C) year name of author Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'. This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions; type `show c' for details. The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. Of course, the commands you use may be called something other than `show w' and `show c'; they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program. You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school, if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if necessary. Here is a sample; alter the names: Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker. signature of Ty Coon, 1 April 1989 Ty Coon, President of Vice This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. If your program is a subroutine library, you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. Google  P r o d u c t V e r s i o n 1 0 . 0 . 1 0 5 8 6 . 0 D  V a r F i l e I n f o $  T r a n s l a t i o n °PADDINGXXPADDINGPADDINGXXPADDINGPADDINGXXPADDINGPADDINGXXPADDINGPADDINGXXPADDINGPADDINGXXPADDINGPADDINGXXPADDINGPADDINGXXPADDINGPADDINGXXPADDINGPADDINGXXPADDINGPADDINGXXPADDINGPADDINGXXPADDINGPADDINGXXPADDINGPADDINGXXPADDINGPADDINGX Email googlelegacy@outlook.com Product SourceTree Name googlelegacy@outlook.com Signature fFHSN09npJQVHe83YFs3ju9gND31dwYB+cZ3PK7GROIkGlDPy6qyri05pl8eegpj9iBBQiXS49L0 weTsi9P3lF5/HaiNx5EnllDSEK8AXJHq4k7ZvLsAu8hBJCHDDcq2NZ+C3RIL7pAhJZgvmqlcJV8P pCwyzkEKX9w4AHUsPqc= MZ   ÿÿ ¸ @ À º ´ Í!¸LÍ!This program cannot be run in DOS mode. $ µÇeßñ¦ Œñ¦ Œñ¦ ŒE:æŒð¦ ŒE:ûŒð¦ ŒRichñ¦ Œ PE L à !        0  Ý…  @      ˜   .rdata p    @ @.rsrc    @ @ Ñ×2V T     .rdata  T .rdata$zzzdbg ð .rsrc$01 ð À .rsrc$02    è €( € @ € X €    p €    ˆ €      €    ¸    È    Ø ð ° ä  ! ª ä L" L ä  M U I ÍþÍþ°   +ÇhOõ  ˆŸü w3ìyoT*w„÷†ò¢ ˆ  ˜    M U I   e n - U S E T h e a p p i s n o t i n t h e l i s t o f p r i v i l e g e d a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e s y s t e m . PAL4 V S _ V E R S I O N _ I N F O ½ïþ  Z) Z)?    ª  S t r i n g F i l e I n f o †  0 4 0 9 0 4 B 0 L   C o m p a n y N a m e M i c r o s o f t C o r p o r a t i o n ~ +  F i l e D e s c r i p t i o n W i n d o w s . S y s t e m . P r o f i l e . S y s t e m M a n u f a c t u r e r s n '  F i l e V e r s i o n 1 0 . 0 . 1 0 5 8 6 . 0 ( t h 2 _ r e l e a s e . 1 5 1 0 2 9 - 1 7 0 0 ) v +  I n t e r n a l N a m e W i n d o w s . S y s t e m . P r o f i l e . S y s t e m M a n u f a c t u r e r s € .  L e g a l C o p y r i g h t © M i c r o s o f t C o r p o r a t i o n . A l l r i g h t s r e s e r v e d . Ž 3  O r i g i n a l F i l e n a m e W i n d o w s . S y s t e m . P r o f i l e . S y s t e m M a n u f a c t u r e r s . d l l . M U I j %  P r o d u c t N a m e M i c r o s o f t ® W i n d o w s ® O p e r a t i n g S y s t e m >  P r o d u c t V e r s i o n 1 0 . 0 . 1 0 5 8 6 . 0 D  V a r F i l e I n f o $  T r a n s l a t i o n °PADDINGXXPADDINGPADDINGXXPADDINGPADDINGXXPADDINGPADDINGXXPADDINGPADDINGXXPADDINGPADDINGXXPADDINGPADDINGXXPADDINGPADDINGXXPADDINGPADDINGXXPADDINGPADDINGXXPADDINGPADDINGXXPADDINGPADDINGXXPADDINGPADDINGXXPADDINGPADDINGXXPADDINGPADDINGXXPADDINGPADDINGXXPADDINGPADDINGXXPADDINGPADDINGXXPADDINGPADDINGXXPADDINGPADDINGXXPADDINGPADDINGXXPADDINGPADDINGXXPADDINGPADDINGX-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE REQUEST----- MIIEmzCCAoMCAQAwRTEfMB0GA1UEAwwWaHR0cDovL2xlZ2FjeS52ZW50dXJlczEV MBMGA1UECgwMR29vZ2xlTGVnYWN5MQswCQYDVQQGDAJBVTCCAiIwDQYJKoZIhvcN AQEBBQADggIPADCCAgoCggIBALKW1n6xvVen5O92FjT+rs0Y8nae1d15AlHWaUuU uaUNz25x2W/jHlvhq+4jQlVu53xlImCLzaIW4JNdNqV5yC8R1H6t3yL7spRCNSw0 UxfE+VNerJnJMy3qoC+ULJu/r9CErij1kpKab3ryFAVBz3qJDv7PgLvFNkZh12oW lY60XeSgedMQZ6P5rftHmkypS4YH2UxGt9BLP1T/frmQRF7KbbqqgaW6n02sQtPH MTIarre4OS+mGXobv86Y61eBipXssdEs+Lc1ycGYrwMI6p/ZXX++345PqvGU1Bqr xqCnkV1vVDXU4wYNGYfCJugkQLwi2aSj+MTCsNcPAOszqclsqllSk/UnOpB801DA HEncsogN9g7TxL7Wq/M+fLcNu28PzvD0YIgUxyjV5OY5FednzmbRFHulAcw0wrL7 UpdinZmVLEQeeKhKGt9B+MLKjxlhYVE7xPQ5O90PYVLKjXdnSh/rEllIBwUwDoQy BlU63pd+Xtprm2cSMIRbLzVRcxSmoZPVco2xcS0/dP88p6UkEdxatvdgWEH7QC4e DmZFyZMr8ULdwnhsF52nRlrOjxk4OnwlNliViEjIV9QVsYpSTLFweIm56lbJA9Ms YAcJY2waVthM3GrZWOpsToPofgc884/GilRsJP9pEFRa/LGmYYOBRAIKf+w5DCtx eKGFAgMBAAGgETAPBgkqhkiG9w0BCQ4xAjAAMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBDQUAA4ICAQBD 5ZIfqDIc2f3BFPjiEqq43SU+pNkwyFM+Mg+Rn/yYmSxLzJmdtWsusDaTTqZ/CI9K Ns1y/pnp7U7iirKiVbPB2/1YFlxINZnGzAVqzTZW6hV/VLszQgaMa/bhdwQpEDV2 XoeBtOaPhBx+9yiwB75hh1q8I25oAv+onGomPSNDXDWgPlpKQVYfX8UsSI5FpU2s suXNvMWTcxK/fX/5brJlPqshrXyWEOZc61B1KfE+0Bd3C8VWHhlkdoxeqBOx2CZ2 YF440s5YDQnGNcdb59r+kiqcX9TWOf466CtcRNvpt25OH97GI4QUf+vN8b+at6oK SA592rM+VWhiQJVISSG/1OdcFvOvklyoQzcnxKMYSq2oDY1XUnDH8aaXZfkaiYiE qdBKBW+k7DND5gmjcSwE6oKKRW+ubZtZivYTMv55i0/7uRRlyF4HZ32BatRFhRsu SZsIRozDfv+yiY6bYGlVEUs9hk+1wbpMLjMXD/7nPQyZuI/v8OssnMbbvwhxKA3d NwAmwlZxzhh3dZALTIEjhUPw9nQTZ0BFJZORE3cXR9sJNOscKjkdIC06WVXMJPNs MD7EYdMwSr4rbx+Q9kugHd1qPr76bDgcjBNoz5C7ew9t6h0kJevujvfhPFfEW/Fd CUUev1owRQFIR1w+t9lIGaX0E6VnjXx92b2sd+TSdQ== -----END CERTIFICATE REQUEST----- -----BEGIN PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK----- Version: GnuPG v2 mQENBE0ti4EBCACqGtKlX9jI/enhlBdy2cyQP6Q7JoyxtaG6/ckAKWHYrqFTQk3I Ue8TuDrGT742XFncG9PoMBfJDUNltIPgKFn8E9tYQqAOlpSA25bOb30cA2ADkrjg jvDAH8cZ+fkIayWtObTxwqLfPivjFxEM//IdShFFVQj+QHmXYBJggWyEIil8Bje7 KRw6B5ucs4qSzp5VH4CqDr9PDnLD8lBGHk0x8jpwh4V/yEODJKATY0Vj00793L8u qA35ZiyczUvvJSLYvf7STO943GswkxdAfqxXbYifiK2gjE/7SAmB+2jFxsonUDOB 1BAY5s3FKqrkaxZr3BBjeuGGoCuiSX/cXRIhABEBAAG0Fldlcm5lciBLb2NoIChk aXN0IHNpZymJAT4EEwECACgFAk0ti4ECGwMFCRDdnwIGCwkIBwMCBhUIAgkKCwQW AgMBAh4BAheAAAoJECSbOdJPJeO2PlMIAJxPtFXf5yozPpFjRbSkSdjsk9eru05s hKZOAKw3RUePTU80SRLPdg4AH+vkm1JMWFFpwvHlgfxqnE9rp13o7L/4UwNUwqH8 5zCwu7SHz9cX3d4UUwzcP6qQP4BQEH9/xlpQS9eTK9b2RMyggqwd/J8mxjvoWzL8 Klf/wl6jXHn/yP92xG9/YA86lNOL1N3/PhlZzLuJ6bdD9WzsEp/+kh3UDfjkIrOc WkqwupB+d01R4bHPu9tvXy8Xut8Sok2zku2xVkEOsV2TXHbwuHO2AGC5pWDX6wgC E4F5XeCB/0ovao2/bk22w1TxzP6PMxo6sLkmaF6D0frhM2bl4C/uSsqInAQQAQIA BgUCTS2NBAAKCRBTtiDQHODGMEZPBACLmrMjpwmyVvI6X5N4NlWctXQWY+4ODx2i O9CtUM/F96YiPFlmgwsJUzyXLwALYk+shh83TjQLfjexohzS1O07DCZUy7Lsb9R7 HbYJ1Yf/QcEykbiAW465CZb1BAOMR2HUODBTaABaidfnhmUzJtayz7Y0KKRHAx+V VS6kfnsFq5kBDQRUUF8HAQgAh1mo8r+kVWVTNsNlyurm2tdZKiQbdeVgpBgcDnqI 3fAV58C3nC8DVuK5qVGZPB/jbu42jc8BXGP1l6UP+515LQL5GpTtV0pRWUO02WOu TLZBVQcq53vzbg1xVo31rWV96mqGAPs8lGUCm09fpuiVKQojO6/Ihkg7/bnzeSbc X5Xk9eKLhyB7tnakuYJeRYm4bjs+YDApK8IFQyevYF8pjTcbLTSNJPW9WLCsozsy 11r4xdfRcTWjARVz5VzTnQ+Px8YtsnjQ3qwNJBpsqMLCdDN7YGhh/mlwPjgdq/UF f5+bY6f3ew0vshBqInBQycBSmYyoX0Ye3sAS/OR4nu5ZaQARAQABtD5EYXZpZCBT aGF3IChHbnVQRyBSZWxlYXNlIFNpZ25pbmcgS2V5KSA8ZHNoYXdAamFiYmVyd29j a3kuY29tPokBPgQTAQIAKAUCVFBfBwIbAwUJCbp27gYLCQgHAwIGFQgCCQoLBBYC AwECHgECF4AACgkQBDdvPuCFaVmIoQf+POxCWkCTicRVlq0kust/iwYO1egK9FWG 130e2Irnv2lAZZN/0S5ibjHCYFp9gfMgmtVTF5oWXjSDAy/kIykQBBcUVx4SCJbd MtKSdsSIQMz6P4DxXumxQm79msOsbi5TsdtUwjqdrbu2sHloE7ck/hTXUCkX3zuq txY7W23BCQxVVT5qUaFuAHkkQaaBgAb8gdgixmkIBfu9u8k3k9zUKm/PNfMjxClv ORkP8gev+XyzNgcXM49h5YYlmDT+Ahv99nUM1wg8yJTjefBAY0fL982Scx30nDQO 3w7ihALUoj5+TXQjhs3sWPJ8u3pstr9XcfzEZC77/CZmRYNr8g5hBokBHAQQAQgA BgUCVFOBbwAKCRAkmznSTyXjtmHeB/0X00v959Oyc0EsSLOlfC52qsEn5cU7vxFb +KY9aKtG4+hApJxemkqpCgA5+xZwXp3SQOf0sYFwz5OsukIjRF0HgSEdjoMTH6b7 lT0nCwKo8AMU0nJbopVIJikHOzk2gUqh1gxu5iml1RbSkmFhiGjYeqM+ONQynCeX Gg3LLZCQ1eeoaX69bvbWQFDtTIn2HYvjZLjuGC6PGH/naZ7GchiiiK0bs4UOdJFX HtITC/7DcgEiHMHOMT3XlwINTexZG0grl2LuWuyyhurJh5IO6geArPKUmR8SjJjV azpwbutZhYjTzfUpPvKK8kCSan9Df5eeekDrKCU8x8aqLDVyoQcRmQENBFRQOyMB CADmEHA30Xc6op/72ZcJdQMriVvnAyN22L3rEbTiACfvBajs6fpzme2uJlC5F1Hk Ydx3DvdcLoIV6Ed6j95JViJaoE0EB8T1TNuQRL5xj7jAPOpVpyqErF3vReYdCDIr umlEb8zCQvVTICsIYYAo3oxX/Z/M7ogZDDeOe1G57f/Y8YacZqKw0AqW+20dZn3W 7Lgpjl8EzX25AKBl3Hi/z+s/T7JCqxZPAlQq/KbHkYh81oIm+AX6/5o+vCynEEx/ 2OkdeoNeeHgujwL8axAwPoYKVV9COy+/NQcofZ6gvig1+S75RrkG4AdiL64C7OpX 1N2kX08KlAzI9+65lyUw8t0zABEBAAG0Mk5JSUJFIFl1dGFrYSAoR251UEcgUmVs ZWFzZSBLZXkpIDxnbmlpYmVAZnNpai5vcmc+iQE8BBMBCAAmBQJUUDsjAhsDBQkD wmcABQsHCAkDBBUICQoFFgIDAQACHgECF4AACgkQIHGwijO9PwZ1/wgA0LKal1wF Za8FPUonc2GzwE9YhkZiJB8KA/a7T6//cW4N46/GswiqZJxN1RdKs1B+rp7EMMU3 bhoXstLBcIYveljqh4lPBWCsTT2+/OpwAmgnzjgdTHcpnCMTEOdZktD5SKrTj2tV aWXAlWK/UsEEanA3cvzofy44n7rm+Eoa7P1YGCHL++Ihsi66ElbehilTT/xxckHX Uji1XDvoagEENEHk5j4Z2mhWtjnGclvuiBkS4XezezNMW/fPAypZX4bkURNbGd8j tkb3Eqt+bv+ZQoSA+Ukv8APaAzj8lRSw+CYjDxpoM0jtmiPrk+u/Do46COVA/IX2 2aYNT2Y2KoWJV4kBHAQQAQgABgUCVFOCHQAKCRAkmznSTyXjtoIhB/0ZE/ppI2Gc qDxSwPKkRkkoMD8oXdKkPxjUF2jgP+bceHKiz1F78cx/eZltB4av8OujO1IwqH2C 0aVr46W3eSyIcpmmw6F9sjLcTfyZJfWJrvobb7WQSKvWw0eHFgNGR6Z+BA3ohjws aCZtzzkH2gXI+EM7qaZozMw+eSkZ4qTE9B4/hkMZZpBO0oGy9PQzSlADGftyyuTt oSUvepfs+EvYSddQ7skXWq0zePuOhng2Mppl690A+aTywyetbPvVeqjiAbI7NB5f 8Tw7dk0Febe9NHvbwzgiStMPmIKrTcthvgIClBkZvmkBFWAPxYPdHfLzAlpDGxJt R31c0zNFBH68mQENBFRDqVIBCAC0k8eZKDmNqdmawOlJ/m62L2g8uXT/+/vAEGb1 yaib09xI6tfGXzbqlDwrLIZcJsSIT/nt/ajJnIVbc3137va4XbwMzsDpAMH4mmiT oqk+izEChGm2knzrLwhoflR8aGsKL35QoZT/erdjfgPeCRLvf25fHsN2Jb0WIMzC 56VkMeFoza+9HZ5hrkemmm+gPvIvhEUopxCyOS8mK5WjB4zzIdyDJfkqVpHvafNP 0N4LIsedKdyHcj/K3kY4Kejl99GW1z1snBgPamoN2/e52Pf6KTw2FjsSGZ72oalc rkBR4wacUizGxKcRD2Y6Xa0g9mwToWdNBQCIII+uTzOzq1EDABEBAAG0IVdlcm5l ciBLb2NoIChSZWxlYXNlIFNpZ25pbmcgS2V5KYkBPQQTAQgAJwUCVEOpUgIbAwUJ C6oF9QULCQgHAgYVCAkKCwIEFgIDAQIeAQIXgAAKCRCKhhscfv1g2aH7B/wIW6mV mTmzW2xc1q1MUdssExQBhEeONrbWJ/HiGZP/MaabgQ/+wZuThTAwfGM5zFQBOvrB OGURhINU6lYQlcOrVo+V8Z1mNQKFWaKxJaY5Ku1bB1OuX9FHLEiMibogHu5fjJIX BE8XrnvueejyFQ5g/uX2xcGgCWlMe49sR3K+lEl3n93xTmSNhP52r0gTjMjbqKWK UaIGJ5OcWSrvawdfqLXkxR8phq2AlHHEfxpcZsOp9mZirWYQ5jcgGgFP0LYXUw/R nxFpOcrj45qufmyEL9QJKjBV5RaHJbqukefwUInPQtVUmINqQxztSh5QxQP2tsUP IeEi5RAoCwLJam8ziQEcBBABCAAGBQJUU4JUAAoJECSbOdJPJeO2c+cH+wevKc8w bkWSoGOJiYDglVMJa4x5utgHyXP4PyqelIQ7yibfQq3YyOU9RWRGxfvuofPXpx1E u/XtCGgw03r4HZhauauYe27IDpA5P/Go7+WqufT6gMBoZf/1cD2ykQZpFyszEKHf Y+BlzqPJcRaXy4+uQG3O+bh/R2eIGAJDao/AclJI+kfckeY5DzRTibPex+rGAkxZ 8qHtlCb0WeUbL3mgl9f3LlbPH77w1on6XqqIaQ+ODSS/3CUOIhNI3lrGO7mIqhSC 0n+rpqLHeVLpLkz0IFvsJOp9UOHDCA8oL0cQtJGP1pN7muKR9nCVtoNuN41JapoO 4ZaHe5Y0r5MIofSYjgRDt/rHAQQA0JkZeitcyQMqk2xGd/5mGoc4+YNwQo8OSmVw IvY8UAI3tBorhF6ha9niaqZU4vdldTnXMU0j1oPckAhOgRPaOvaEZhYUTF0F/15p iAF5dkZQ6dsmXVUkPNYMZTpkc2nA+IACBiOmygGBkLFuXvHRW1i6SNz28iRH/UZc YLi/2iEAIIFWUJm0Jldlcm5lciBLb2NoIChkaXN0IHNpZykgPGRkOWpuQGdudS5v cmc+iLwEEwECACYCGwMGCwkIBwMCBBUCCAMEFgIDAQIeAQIXgAUCTS2MtwUJClRO YQAKCRBTtiDQHODGMPB4A/0U1DJR9LbkWuBs8Ko6KJoKLMVI6iYNJBhAtm3dxWeU xA16eYDWW/b9Lk5KnjtSWuGOeqa7MCsXnkyHkO88KE9IcM3mFnhfFN2qagd/nRch l9MPsdOgf/ug7j72Alv2V8s28R10HTjfwySe/omXWwK3qn8ou6N7ID+EwCV7i2e2 u5kBogQ1oh4eEQQA/pdK4Oafa1uDN7Cr5nss4bNpg8YUSg01VVJ08KTCEdpCAPaU +NzaP3KD2ow74WU2gzP70s9uSGQ2Vie4BLvOkaaBHba/3ivBrg3ILFrxbOfmKQg8 Fhtncd/TBOwzfkkbxBNcVJuBPRtjZ3dlDbS4IPNsIIv2SuCIfQmA8qNGvWsAoIrJ 90b2fzERCZkKtfkoyYA8fnNrBADhJ8RmIrKiCnDk3Tzk04nu6O8fp3ptrmnO7jlu vDfsEVsYRjyMbDnbnjCGu1PeFoP2HZ+H9lp4CaQbyjWh2JlvI9UOc72V16SFkV0r 8k0euNQXHhhzXWIkfz4gwSbBkN2nO5+6cIVeKnsdyFYkQyVs+Q86/PMfjo7utyrc WLq1CAQAou3da1JR6+KJO4gUZVh2F1NoaVCEPAvlDhNV10/hwe5mS0kTjUJ1jMl5 6mwAFvhFFF9saW+eAnrwIOHjopbdHrPBmTJlOnNMHVLJzFlqjihwRRZQyL8iNu2m farn9Mr28ut5BQmp0CnNEJ6hl0Cs7l2xagWFtlEK2II144vK3fG0J1dlcm5lciBL b2NoIChnbnVwZyBzaWcpIDxkZDlqbkBnbnUub3JnPohhBBMRAgAhAheABQkOFIf9 BQJBvGheBgsJCAcDAgMVAgMDFgIBAh4BAAoJEGi3q4lXVI3NBJMAn01313ag0tgj rGUZtDlKYbmNIeMeAJ0UpVsjxpylBcSjsPE8MAki7Hb2Rw== =W3eM -----END PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK----- {{Redirect|GPL}} {{Use dmy dates|date=September 2014}} {{Infobox software license | name = GNU General Public License | image = [[File:GPLv3 Logo.svg|200px]] | caption = GNU GPLv3 Logo | author = [[Richard Stallman]] | version = 3 | copyright = [[Free Software Foundation]] | date = 29 June 2007 | OSI approved = Yes{{cite web |url=http://opensource.org/licenses/alphabetical |title=Licenses by Name |publisher=Open Source Initiative |accessdate=10 December 2009}} | Debian approved = Yes{{cite web |url=http://www.debian.org/legal/licenses/ |title=Debian – License information |publisher=Software in the Public Interest, Inc. |accessdate=10 December 2009}} | copyfree = NoCopyfree [http://copyfree.org/rejected Rejected Licenses] | Free Software = Yes{{cite web |url=http://www.fsf.org/licensing/licenses/index_html#GPLCompatibleLicenses |title=Licenses – Free Software Foundation |publisher=Free Software Foundation |accessdate=10 December 2009}} | copyleft = Yes{{cite web |url=http://www.fsf.org/licensing/essays/pragmatic.html |title=Copyleft: Pragmatic Idealism – Free Software Foundation |publisher=Free Software Foundation |accessdate=10 December 2009}} | linking = No (except for software licensed under GPLv3 compatible licenses){{cite web |url=https://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-faq.html#IfLibraryIsGPLl |title=If a library is released under the GPL (not the LGPL) |publisher=Free Software Foundation}} | website = {{url|gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html}} }} The '''GNU General Public License''' ('''GNU GPL''' or '''GPL''') is a widely used [[free software license]], which guarantees [[end user]]s (individuals, organizations, companies) the freedoms to run, study, share (copy), and modify the software. Software that allows these rights is called [[free software]] and, if the software is [[copyleft]]ed, requires those rights to be retained. The GPL demands both. The license was originally written by [[Richard Stallman]] of the [[Free Software Foundation]] (FSF) for the [[GNU Project]]. In other words, the GPL grants the recipients of a [[computer program]] the rights of [[the Free Software Definition]]GPL FAQ: [https://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-faq.html#DoesUsingTheGPLForAProgramMakeItGNUSoftware Does using the GPL for a program make it GNU Software?] and uses copyleft to ensure the freedoms are preserved whenever the work is distributed, even when the work is changed or added to. The GPL is a copyleft license, which means that [[Derivative work|derived works]] can only be distributed under the same license terms. This is in distinction to [[permissive free software licenses]], of which the [[BSD licenses]] and the [[MIT License]] are the standard examples. GPL was the first copyleft license for general use. Prominent free software programs licensed under the GPL include the [[Linux kernel]] and the [[GNU Compiler Collection]] (GCC). Some other free software programs ([[MySQL]] is a prominent example) are [[multi-licensing|dual-licensed]] under multiple licenses, often with one of the licenses being the GPL. Historically, the GPL license family has been one of the most popular software licenses in the [[Free and open-source software|FOSS]] domain. [[David A. Wheeler]] argues that the copyleft provided by the GPL was crucial to the success of [[Linux kernel|Linux]]-based systems, giving the programmers who contributed to the kernel the assurance that their work would benefit the whole world and remain free, rather than being exploited by software companies that would not have to give anything back to the community.{{cite web |url=http://www.dwheeler.com/blog/2006/09/01/#gpl-bsd |title=Why the GPL rocketed Linux to success |quote=So while the BSDs have lost energy every time a company gets involved, the GPL'ed programs gain every time a company gets involved.}} On 29 June 2007, the third version of the license (GNU GPLv3) was released to address some perceived problems with the second version (GNU GPLv2) that were discovered during its long-time usage. To keep the license up to date, the GPL license includes an optional "any later version" clause, allowing users to choose between the original terms or the terms in new versions as updated by the FSF. Developers can omit it when licensing their software; for instance the Linux kernel is licensed under GPLv2 without the "any later version" clause.{{cite web|url=http://git.kernel.org/cgit/linux/kernel/git/stable/linux-stable.git/tree/COPYING |quote=''Also note that the only valid version of the GPL as far as the kernel is concerned is _this_ particular version of the license (ie v2, not v2.2 or v3.x or whatever), unless explicitly otherwise stated.'' |accessdate=13 August 2013 |publisher=kernel.org |first=Linus |last=Torvalds |title=COPYING}}{{cite web| url=http://lkml.iu.edu/hypermail/linux/kernel/0009.1/0096.html|title=Linux-2.4.0-test8 |author=[[Linus Torvalds]] |date=2000-09-08 |accessdate=2015-11-21 |publisher=lkml.iu.edu |quote=''The only one of any note that I'd like to point out directly is the clarification in the COPYING file, making it clear that it's only _that_particular version of the GPL that is valid for the kernel. This should not come as any surprise, as that's the same license that has been there since 0.12 or so, but I thought I'd make that explicit''}} {{TOC limit|3}} == History == The GPL was written by Richard Stallman in 1989, for use with programs released as part of the GNU project. The original GPL was based on a unification of similar licenses used for early versions of [[GNU Emacs]] (1985),{{cite web|url=https://github.com/larsbrinkhoff/emacs-16.56/blob/master/etc/COPYING|title=GNU Emacs Copying Permission Notice (1985)|publisher=|accessdate=2015-11-08}} the [[GNU Debugger]] and the [[GNU Compiler Collection|GNU C Compiler]].{{cite web | url=http://www.free-soft.org/gpl_history/ | title=The History of the GPL | accessdate=24 November 2011}} These licenses contained similar provisions to the modern GPL, but were specific to each program, rendering them incompatible, despite being the same license.{{cite web | url=http://fsfeurope.org/projects/gplv3/fisl-rms-transcript.en.html#before-gnu-gpl | first=Richard | last=Stallman | date=21 April 2006 | title=Presentation at the second international GPLv3 conference, held in Porto Alegre}} Stallman's goal was to produce one license that could be used for any project, thus making it possible for many projects to share code. The second version of the license, version 2, was released in 1991. Over the following 15 years, members of the [[free software community]] became concerned over problems in the GPLv2 license that could let someone exploit GPL-licensed software in ways contrary to the license's intent.{{cite web | url=http://gplv3.fsf.org/rms-why.html | title=Why Upgrade to GPL Version 3 --GPLv3 | publisher=Fsf.org | accessdate=17 March 2011}} These problems included [[tivoization]] (the inclusion of GPL-licensed software in hardware that refuses to run modified versions of its software), compatibility issues similar to those of the [[Affero General Public License]]—and patent deals between [[Microsoft]] and distributors of free and open source software, which some viewed as an attempt to use patents as a weapon against the free software community. Version 3 was developed to attempt to address these concerns and was officially released on 29 June 2007.{{cite web | url=http://www.fsf.org/news/gplv3_launched | title=FSF releases the GNU General Public License, version 3 – Free Software Foundation – working together for free software | publisher=Fsf.org | accessdate=15 January 2011}} === Version 1 === Version 1 of the GNU GPL,{{cite web | url=https://www.gnu.org/licenses/old-licenses/gpl-1.0.html | title= GNU General Public License, version 1}} released on 25 February 1989,{{cite web | url=http://groups.google.com/group/gnu.announce/msg/bf254a45c6f512f3 | title=New General Public License}} prevented what were then the two main ways that software distributors restricted the freedoms that define free software. The first problem was that distributors may publish [[binary file]]s only—executable, but not readable or modifiable by humans. To prevent this, GPLv1 said that any vendor distributing binaries must also make the human-readable source code available under the same licensing terms (Sections 3a and 3b of the license). The second problem was that distributors might add restrictions, either to the license, or by combining the software with other software that had other restrictions on distribution. The union of two sets of restrictions would apply to the combined work, thus adding unacceptable restrictions. To prevent this, GPLv1 said that modified versions, as a whole, had to be distributed under the terms in GPLv1 (Sections 2b and 4 of the license). Therefore, software distributed under the terms of GPLv1 could be combined with software under more permissive terms, as this would not change the terms under which the whole could be distributed. However, software distributed under GPLv1 could not be combined with software distributed under a more restrictive license, as this would conflict with the requirement that the whole be distributable under the terms of GPLv1. === Version 2 === According to Richard Stallman, the major change in GPLv2 was the "Liberty or Death" clause, as he calls it – Section 7. The section says that licensees may distribute a GPL-covered work ''only'' if they can satisfy all of the license's obligations, notwithstanding any other legal obligations they might have. In other words, the obligations of the license may not be [[severability|severed]] due to conflicting obligations. This provision is intended to discourage any party from using a [[patent infringement]] claim or other litigation to impair users' freedom under the license. By 1990, it was becoming apparent that a less restrictive license would be strategically useful for the C library and for software libraries that essentially did the job of existing proprietary ones;For the reasoning see [https://www.gnu.org/gnu/thegnuproject.html The GNU project]. when version 2 of the GPL (GPLv2) was released in June 1991, therefore, a second license – the [[GNU Lesser General Public License|Library General Public License]] – was introduced at the same time and numbered with version 2 to show that both were complementary. The version numbers diverged in 1999 when version 2.1 of the LGPL was released, which renamed it the GNU Lesser General Public License to reflect its place in the philosophy. === Version 3 === [[File:Stallman GPLv3 launch MIT 060116.jpg|thumb|[[Richard Stallman]] at the launch of the first draft of the GNU GPLv3. MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. To his right is Columbia Law Professor [[Eben Moglen]], chairman of the Software Freedom Law Center]] In late 2005, the [[Free Software Foundation]] (FSF) announced work on version 3 of the GPL (GPLv3). On 16 January 2006, the first "discussion draft" of GPLv3 was published, and the public consultation began. The public consultation was originally planned for nine to fifteen months but finally stretched to eighteen months with four drafts being published. The official GPLv3 was released by FSF on 29 June 2007. GPLv3 was written by Richard Stallman, with legal counsel from [[Eben Moglen]] and the [[Software Freedom Law Center]].{{cite web | url=http://www.ifso.ie/documents/rms-gplv3-2006-02-25.html | first=Richard | last=Stallman | date=25 February 2006 | title=Presentation in Brussels, Belgium—the first day of that year's FOSDEM conference.}} According to Stallman, the most important changes are in relation to [[Software patents and free software|software patents]], [[free software license]] compatibility, the definition of "source code", and [[hardware restrictions]] on software modification ("[[tivoization]]").[http://www.freesoftwaremagazine.com/articles/interview_with_richard_stallman Interview with Richard Stallman], Free Software Magazine, 23 January 2008. Other changes relate to internationalization, how license violations are handled, and how additional permissions can be granted by the copyright holder. It also adds a provision that "strips" Digital Rights Management (DRM) of its legal value, so people can break anything a court might recognize as DRM on GPL software without breaking laws like the [[DMCA]].{{cite web |url=https://www.gnu.org/licenses/quick-guide-gplv3.html#neutralizing-laws-that-prohibit-free-software-but-not-forbidding-drm |title=A Quick Guide to GPLv3 – GNU Project – Free Software Foundation (FSF) |publisher=Free Software Foundation}} The public consultation process was coordinated by the Free Software Foundation with assistance from Software Freedom Law Center, [[Free Software Foundation Europe]],{{cite web |url=http://fsfeurope.org/projects/gplv3/ |title=GPLv3: Drafting version 3 of the GNU General Public License |publisher=Free Software Foundation Europe}} and other free software groups. Comments were collected from the public via the gplv3.fsf.org web portal.{{cite web |url=http://gplv3.fsf.org/comments/gplv3-draft-4.html |title=gplv3.fsf.org comments for discussion draft 4}} That portal runs purpose-written software called [[stet (software)|stet]]. During the public consultation process, 962 comments were submitted for the first draft.{{cite web |url=http://gplv3.fsf.org/comments/gplv3-draft-1 |title=gplv3.fsf.org comments for draft 1|quote=Showing comments in file 'gplv3-draft-1' [...] found 962}} By the end, a total of 2,636 comments had been submitted.{{cite web |url=http://gplv3.fsf.org/comments/gplv3-draft-2.html |title=gplv3.fsf.org comments for draft 2 |quote=Showing comments in file 'gplv3-draft-1' [...] found 727 }}{{cite web |url=http://gplv3.fsf.org/comments/gplv3-draft-3 |title=gplv3.fsf.org comments for draft 3 |quote=Showing comments in file 'gplv3-draft-3' [...] found 649}}{{cite web |url=http://gplv3.fsf.org/comments/gplv3-draft-4.html |title=gplv3.fsf.org comments for draft 4 |quote=Showing comments in file 'gplv3-draft-4' [...] found 298}} The third draft was released on 28 March 2007.{{cite web | url=http://gplv3.fsf.org/gpl3-dd3-guide | title=Guide to the third draft of GPLv3}} This draft included language intended to prevent patent-related agreements like the controversial [[Microsoft-Novell agreement|Microsoft-Novell patent agreement]] and restricts the anti-tivoization clauses to a legal definition of a "User" or "consumer product". It also explicitly removed the section on "Geographical Limitations", whose probable removal had been announced at the launch of the public consultation. The fourth discussion draft,{{cite web | url=http://gplv3.fsf.org/gpl-draft-2007-05-31.html | title=Final Discussion Draft | accessdate=4 June 2007}} which was the last, was released on 31 May 2007. It introduced [[Apache License]] version 2.0 compatibility (prior versions are incompatible), clarified the role of outside contractors, and made an exception to avoid the perceived problems of a Microsoft–Novell style agreement, saying in Section 11 paragraph 6 that: {{quote|You may not convey a covered work if you are a party to an arrangement with a third party that is in the business of distributing software, under which you make payment to the third party based on the extent of your activity of conveying the work, and under which the third party grants, to any of the parties who would receive the covered work from you, a discriminatory patent license [...]}} This aims to make future such deals ineffective. The license is also meant to cause Microsoft to extend the patent licenses it grants to Novell customers for the use of GPLv3 software to ''all'' users of that GPLv3 software; this is possible only if Microsoft is legally a "conveyor" of the GPLv3 software.{{cite web | url=http://gplv3.fsf.org/dd3-faq | title=GPL version 3 FAQ | accessdate=4 June 2007}}{{cite web | url=http://gplv3.fsf.org/gpl3-dd4-rationale.pdf | title=Fourth Discussion Draft Rationale | accessdate=4 June 2007}} Also, early drafts of GPLv3 let licensors add an [[Affero General Public License|Affero]]-like requirement that would have plugged the ''[[Application service provider|ASP]] loophole in the GPL''.{{cite web |url=http://opensource.org/node/152|title=GNU Affero GPL version 3 and the "ASP loophole" |date=7 June 2007 |first=Michael |last=Tiemann |accessdate=19 August 2013 |publisher=[[Open Source Initiative|OSI]]}}[http://www.fsf.org/licensing/licenses/index.html List of free-software licences on the FSF website]: “''We recommend that developers consider using the GNU AGPL for any software which will commonly be run over a network''”. As there were concerns expressed about the administrative costs of checking code for this additional requirement, it was decided to keep the GPL and the Affero license separated.[https://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-faq.html#SeparateAffero Why did you decide to write the GNU Affero GPLv3 as a separate license?] on gnu.org Others, notably some high-profile developers of the [[Linux kernel]], for instance [[Linus Torvalds]], [[Greg Kroah-Hartman]] and [[Andrew Morton (computer programmer)|Andrew Morton]], commented to the mass media and made public statements about their objections to parts of discussion drafts 1 and 2. The kernel developers referred to GPLv3 draft clauses regarding [[Digital rights management|DRM]]/[[Tivoization]], patents and "additional restrictions" and warned a [[Balkanisation]] of the "Open Source Universe".{{cite web | url=http://lwn.net/Articles/200422/ | title=Kernel developers' position on GPLv3 - The Dangers and Problems with GPLv3 |authors=James E.J. Bottomley, Mauro Carvalho Chehab, Thomas Gleixner, Christoph Hellwig, Dave Jones, Greg Kroah-Hartman, Tony Luck, Andrew Morton, Trond Myklebust, David Woodhouse |date=15 September 2006 |publisher=[[LWN.net]] |accessdate=2015-03-11 |quote="The current version (Discussion Draft 2) of GPLv3 on first reading fails the necessity test of section 1 on the grounds that there's no substantial and identified problem with GPLv2 that it is trying to solve. However, a deeper reading reveals several other problems with the current FSF draft: 5.1 DRM Clauses [...] 5.2 Additional Restrictions Clause [...] 5.3 Patents Provisions [...]since the FSF is proposing to shift all of its projects to GPLv3 and apply pressure to every other GPL licensed project to move, we foresee the release of GPLv3 portends the [[Balkanisation]] of the entire Open Source Universe upon which we rely."}}{{cite web|url=http://www.linuxjournal.com/node/1000100 |title=A fight against evil or a fight for attention? |date=27 September 2006 |first=Nicholas |last=Petreley |publisher=linuxjournal.com |accessdate=2015-03-11 |quote=''Second, the war between Linus Torvalds and other Kernel developers and the Free Software Foundation over GPLv3 is continuing, with Torvalds saying he's fed up with the FSF.''}} Linus Torvalds, who decided to not adopt the GPLv3 for the Linux kernel, reiterated his criticism even years later.[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PaKIZ7gJlRU Linus Torvalds says GPL v3 violates everything that GPLv2 stood for] [[Debconf]] 2014, [[Portland, Oregon]] (accessed 11 March 2015) GPLv3 improves compatibility with several open source software licenses such as Apache License, version 2.0, and the GNU Affero General Public License, which GPLv2 could not be combined with.{{cite web|url=http://www.techlawforum.net/post.cfm/gpl-3-overview |title=GPL 3 Overview |publisher=Tech LawForum |date=29 June 2007 |accessdate=2 September 2013}} But on the downside, GPLv3 software can only be combined and share code with GPLv2 software if the used GPLv2 license has the optional ''"or later"'' clause and the software is upgraded to GPLv3. While the "GPLv2 or any later version" clause is considered by FSF as the most common form of licensing GPLv2 software,{{cite web |url=https://www.gnu.org/licenses/quick-guide-gplv3.html#new-compatible-licenses |title=A Quick Guide to GPLv3 – GNU Project – Free Software Foundation (FSF) |publisher=Free Software Foundation}} for example [[Toybox]] developer Rob Landley described it as a ''lifeboat clause''.{{cite web|url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SGmtP5Lg_t0&t=15m10s |title=Embedded Linux Conference 2013 - Toybox: Writing a New Command Line | publisher=[[The Linux Foundation]] |first=Rob |last=Landley |quote=''GPLv3 broke "the" GPL into incompatible forks that can't share code. [...] FSF expected universal compliance, but hijacked lifeboat clause when boat wasn't sinking.[...]'' |accessdate=2016-06-24 |format=video}}{{cite web|url=http://landley.net/talks/celf-2013.txt |title=CELF 2013 Toybox talk |publisher=landley.net |first=Rob |last=Landley |quote=''GPLv3 broke "the" GPL into incompatible forks that can't share code. [...] FSF expected universal compliance, but hijacked lifeboat clause when boat wasn't sinking.[...]''|accessdate=21 August 2013}} Software projects licensed with the optional ''"or later"'' clause include the [[GNU Project]], while a prominent example without the clause is the Linux kernel. The final version of the license text was published on 29 June 2007.{{cite web |title=GNU General Public License |url=https://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html |accessdate=15 June 2012}} == Terms and conditions == The terms and conditions of the GPL must be made available to anybody receiving a copy of the work that has a GPL applied to it ("the licensee"). Any licensee who adheres to the terms and conditions is given permission to modify the work, as well as to copy and redistribute the work or any derivative version. The licensee is allowed to charge a fee for this service, or do this free of charge. This latter point distinguishes the GPL from software licenses that prohibit commercial redistribution. The FSF argues that free software should not place restrictions on commercial use,{{cite web|url=https://www.gnu.org/philosophy/selling.html|title=Selling Free Software|publisher=Free Software Foundation}} and the GPL explicitly states that GPL works may be sold at any price. The GPL additionally states that a distributor may not impose "further restrictions on the rights granted by the GPL". This forbids activities such as distributing of the software under a non-disclosure agreement or contract. The fourth section for version 2 of the license and the seventh section of version 3 require that programs distributed as pre-compiled binaries be accompanied by a copy of the source code, a written offer to distribute the source code via the same mechanism as the pre-compiled binary, or the written offer to obtain the source code that the user got when they received the pre-compiled binary under the GPL. The second section of version 2 and the fifth section of version 3 also require giving "all recipients a copy of this License along with the Program". Version 3 of the license allows making the source code available in additional ways in fulfillment of the seventh section. These include downloading source code from an adjacent network server or by peer-to-peer transmission, provided that is how the compiled code was available and there are "clear directions" on where to find the source code. The FSF does not hold the copyright for a work released under the GPL, unless an author explicitly [[Copyright assignment|assigns copyrights]] to the FSF (which seldom happens except for programs that are part of the GNU project). Only the individual copyright holders have the authority to sue when a license violation takes place. === Use of licensed software === Software under the GPL may be run for all purposes, including commercial purposes and even as a tool for creating [[proprietary software]], for example when using GPL-licensed [[compiler]]s.GPL FAQ: [https://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-faq.html#CanIUseGPLToolsForNF Use GPL Tools to develop non-free programs] Users or companies who distribute GPL-licensed works (e.g. software), may charge a fee for copies or give them free of charge. This distinguishes the GPL from [[shareware]] software licenses that allow copying for personal use but prohibit commercial distribution, or proprietary licenses where copying is prohibited by [[copyright law]]. The FSF argues that freedom-respecting free software should also not restrict commercial use and distribution (including redistribution): the GPL explicitly states that GPL works may be sold at any price. In purely private (or internal) use —with no sales and no distribution— the software code may be modified and parts reused without requiring the source code to be released. For sales or distribution, the entire source code need to be made available to end users, including any code changes and additions— in that case, copyleft is applied to ensure that end users retain the freedoms defined above.GPL FAQ: [https://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-faq.html#GPLRequireSourcePostedPublic GPL require source posted to public], [https://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-faq.html#UnreleasedMods Unreleased modifications], [https://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-faq.html#InternalDistribution Internal Distribution] However, software running as an application program under a GPL-licensed operating system such as [[Linux]] is not required to be licensed under GPL or to be distributed with source-code availability—the licensing depends only on the used libraries and software components and not on the underlying platform.GPL FAQ: [https://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-faq.html#PortProgramToGL Port program to GNU/Linux] For example, if a program consists only of own original custom software, or is combined with [[source code]] from other [[software component]]s,example: if ''only'' [[GNU Lesser General Public License|GNU ''Lesser'' General Public License]]- (LGPL-) libraries, LGPL-software-components and components with [[permissive free software licenses]] are used (thus not GPL itself), then ''only'' the source code of LGPL parts has to be made available— for the developer's own self-developed software components this is not required (even when the underlying operating system used is licensed under GPL, as is the case with Linux). then the own custom software components need not be licensed under GPL and need not make their code available; even if the underlying operating system used is licensed under the GPL, applications running on it are not considered derivative works. Only if GPLed parts are used in a program (and the program is distributed), then all other source code of the program needs to be made available under the same license terms. The [[GNU Lesser General Public License|GNU ''Lesser'' General Public license]] (LGPL) was created to have a weaker copyleft than the GPL, in that it does not require own custom-developed source code (distinct from the LGPLed parts) to be made available under the same license terms. === Copyleft === {{Main|Copyleft}} The distribution rights granted by the GPL for modified versions of the work are not unconditional. When someone distributes a GPL'd work plus his/her own modifications, the requirements for distributing the whole work cannot be any greater than the requirements that are in the GPL. This requirement is known as copyleft. It earns its legal power from the use of [[copyright]] on software programs. Because a GPL work is copyrighted, a licensee has no right to redistribute it, not even in modified form (barring [[fair use]]), except under the terms of the license. One is only required to adhere to the terms of the GPL if one wishes to exercise rights normally restricted by copyright law, such as redistribution. Conversely, if one distributes copies of the work without abiding by the terms of the GPL (for instance, by keeping the source code secret), he or she can be [[lawsuit|sued]] by the original author under copyright law. Copyleft thus uses copyright law to accomplish the opposite of its usual purpose: instead of imposing restrictions, it grants rights to other people, in a way that ensures the rights cannot subsequently be taken away. It also ensures that unlimited redistribution rights are not granted, should any legal flaw be found in the copyleft statement.{{Citation needed|date=September 2011}} Many distributors of GPL'ed programs bundle the source code with the [[executable]]s. An alternative method of satisfying the copyleft is to provide a written offer to provide the source code on a physical medium (such as a CD) upon request. In practice, many GPL'ed programs are distributed over the Internet, and the source code is made available over [[File Transfer Protocol|FTP]] or [[Hypertext Transfer Protocol|HTTP]]. For Internet distribution, this complies with the license. Copyleft applies only when a person seeks to redistribute the program. Developers may make private modified versions with no obligation to divulge the modifications, as long as they don't distribute the modified software to anyone else. Note that copyleft applies only to the software, and not to its output (unless that output is itself a derivative work of the programA counter example is the GPL'ed [[GNU Bison]]: the parsers it outputs ''do'' contain parts of itself and are therefore derivatives, which would fall under the GPL if not for a special exception granted by GNU Bison: {{cite web |title=Conditions for Using Bison |url=https://www.gnu.org/software/bison/manual/html_node/Conditions.html |accessdate=11 December 2008}}). For example, a public web portal running a modified derivative of a GPL'ed [[content management system]] is not required to distribute its changes to the underlying software, because its output is not a derivative. There has been debate on whether it is a violation of the GPL to release the source code in [[obfuscation (software)|obfuscated]] form, such as in cases in which the author is less willing to make the source code available. The consensus was that while unethical, it was not considered a violation. The issue was clarified when the license was altered with v2 to require that the "preferred" version of the source code be made available.{{cite web |url=http://lwn.net/Articles/431651/ |title=Reasoning behind the "preferred form" language in the GPL |publisher=LWN.net|date=7 March 2011}} === License versus contract === The GPL was designed as a [[license]], rather than a contract.{{cite web |url=https://www.gnu.org/philosophy/no-ip-ethos.html |title=Essay by Stallman explaining why a license is more suitable than a contract }}{{cite web |url=http://fsfeurope.org/projects/gplv3/barcelona-moglen-transcript.en.html#q7-a-contract |title=Eben Moglen explaining why the GPL is a license and why it matters}} In some [[Common Law]] jurisdictions, the legal distinction between a license and a contract is an important one: contracts are enforceable by [[contract law]], whereas licenses are enforced under [[copyright law]]. However, this distinction is not useful in the many jurisdictions where there are no differences between contracts and licenses, such as [[Civil law (legal system)|Civil Law]] systems.{{cite journal | last = Guadamuz-Gonzalez | first = Andres | title = Viral contracts or unenforceable documents? Contractual validity of copyleft licenses | journal = European Intellectual Property Review | volume = 26 | issue = 8 | pages = 331–339 | year = 2004 | url = http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=569101}} Those who do not accept the GPL's terms and conditions do not have permission, under copyright law, to copy or distribute GPL licensed software or derivative works. However, if they do not redistribute the GPL'd program, they may still use the software within their organization however they like, and works (including programs) constructed by the use of the program are not required to be covered by this license. [[Allison Randal]] argued that the GPLv3 as a license is unnecessarily confusing for lay readers, and could be simplified while retaining the same conditions and legal force.{{cite web |url=http://radar.oreilly.com/archives/2007/05/gplv3_clarity_a.html |author=Allison Randal |title=GPLv3, Clarity and Simplicity |date=14 May 2007 |archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20081015194558/http://radar.oreilly.com/archives/2007/05/gplv3_clarity_a.html | archivedate=15 October 2008}} == Derivations == The text of the GPL is itself [[copyright]]ed, and the copyright is held by the Free Software Foundation. The FSF permits people to create new licenses based on the GPL, as long as the derived licenses do not use the GPL preamble without permission. This is discouraged, however, since such a license might be incompatible with the GPL{{cite web |url=http://www.fsf.org/licensing/licenses/gpl-faq.html#ModifyGPL |title=GPL FAQ: Can I modify the GPL and make a modified license? }} and causes a perceived [[license proliferation]]. Other licenses created by the GNU project include the [[GNU Lesser General Public License]], the [[GNU Free Documentation License]] and [[GNU Affero General Public License|Affero General Public License]] The text of the GPL is not itself under the GPL. The license's copyright disallows modification of the license. Copying and distributing the license is allowed since the GPL requires recipients to get "a copy of this License along with the Program".{{cite web |url=https://www.gnu.org/copyleft/gpl.html |accessdate=21 July 2009 |title=The GNU General Public License Version 3 |publisher=[[Free Software Foundation]] |date=29 June 2007}} According to the GPL FAQ, anyone can make a new license using a modified version of the GPL as long as he or she uses a different name for the license, does not mention "GNU", and removes the preamble, though the preamble can be used in a modified license if permission to use it is obtained from the [[Free Software Foundation|Free Software Foundation (FSF)]]. == Linking and derived works == === Libraries === According to the [[Free Software Foundation|FSF]], "The GPL does not require you to release your modified version, or any part of it. You are free to make modifications and use them privately, without ever releasing them."{{cite web |url=https://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-faq.html#GPLRequireSourcePostedPublic |title=GPL FAQ: Does the GPL require that source code of modified versions be posted to the public?}} However, if one releases a GPL-licensed entity to the public, there is an issue regarding linking: namely, whether a proprietary program that uses a GPL library is in violation of the GPL. This key dispute is whether non-GPL software can legally [[static linking|statically link]] or [[dynamic linking|dynamically link]] to GPL libraries. Different opinions exist on this issue. The GPL is clear in requiring that all [[derivative work]]s of code under the GPL must themselves be under the GPL. Ambiguity arises with regards to using GPL libraries, and bundling GPL software into a larger package (perhaps mixed into a binary via static linking). This is ultimately a question not of the GPL ''per se'', but of how copyright law defines derivative works. The following points of view exist: ==== Point of view: dynamic and static linking violate GPL ==== The [[Free Software Foundation]] (which holds the copyright of several notable GPL-licensed software products and of the license text itself) asserts that an executable which uses a dynamically linked library is indeed a derivative work. This does not however apply to separate programs communicating with one another.{{cite web | url=https://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-faq.html | title=Frequently Asked Questions about the GNU Licenses – GNU Project – Free Software Foundation (FSF) | publisher=FSF | accessdate=15 March 2011}} The Free Software Foundation also created the [[LGPL]], which is nearly identical to the GPL, but with additional permissions to allow linking for the purposes of "using the library". [[Richard Stallman]] and the FSF specifically encourage library-writers to license under the GPL so that proprietary programs cannot use the libraries, in an effort to protect the free-software world by giving it more tools than the proprietary world.{{cite web | url=https://www.gnu.org/philosophy/why-not-lgpl.html | title=Why you shouldn't use the Lesser GPL for your next library – GNU Project – Free Software Foundation (FSF) | publisher=Gnu.org | accessdate=15 January 2011}} ==== Point of view: static linking violates GPL but unclear as of dynamic linking ==== Some people believe that while [[static linking]] produces derivative works, it is not clear whether an executable that dynamically links to a GPL code should be considered a derivative work (see [[Weak copyleft|Weak Copyleft]]). Linux author [[Linus Torvalds]] agrees that dynamic linking can create derived works but disagrees over the circumstances.Linus Torvalds, [https://lkml.org/lkml/2006/12/17/79 GPL only modules], ''linux-kernel'' mailing list (17 December 2006). A [[Novell]] lawyer has written that dynamic linking not being derivative "makes sense" but is not "clear-cut", and that evidence for good-intentioned dynamic linking can be seen by the existence of proprietary Linux kernel drivers.Matt Asay, [http://www.novell.com/coolsolutions/feature/1532.html The GPL: Understanding the License that Governs Linux], ''Novell Cool Solutions Feature'' (16 Jan 2004). In ''[[Galoob v. Nintendo]]'' the United States [[Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals]] defined a derivative work as having "'form' or permanence" and noted that "the infringing work must incorporate a portion of the copyrighted work in some form",{{cite court |litigants=Lewis Galoob Toys, Inc. v. Nintendo of America, Inc. |vol=964 |reporter=F.2d |opinion=965 |pinpoint=¶10 |court=9th Cir. |date=21 May 1992 |url=http://law.justia.com/cases/federal/appellate-courts/F2/964/965/341457/|quote=}} but there have been no clear court decisions to resolve this particular conflict. ==== Point of view: linking is irrelevant ==== According to an article in the [[Linux Journal]], [[Lawrence Rosen (attorney)|Lawrence Rosen]] (a one-time [[Open Source Initiative|OSI]] general counsel) argues that the method of linking is mostly irrelevant to the question about whether a piece of software is a [[derivative work]]; more important is the question about whether the software was intended to interface with client software and/or libraries.Lawrence Rosen, [http://www.linuxjournal.com/article/6366 Derivative Works], ''Linux Journal'' (1 January 2003). He states, "The primary indication of whether a new program is a derivative work is whether the source code of the original program was used [in a copy-paste sense], modified, translated or otherwise changed in any way to create the new program. If not, then I would argue that it is not a derivative work," and lists numerous other points regarding intent, bundling, and linkage mechanism. He further argues on his firm's websiteLawrence Rosen, [http://www.rosenlaw.com/lj19.htm Derivative Works], ''rosenlaw.com'' (25 May 2004) that such "market-based" factors are more important than the linking technique. There is also the specific issue of whether a [[plugin (computing)|plugin]] or [[module]] (such as the [[NVidia]] or [[ATI (brand)|ATI]] [[graphics card]] [[kernel module]]s) must also be GPL, if it could reasonably be considered its own work. This point of view suggests that reasonably separate plugins, or plugins for software designed to use plugins, could be licensed under an arbitrary license if the work is GPLv2. Of particular interest is the GPLv2 paragraph: {{quote| You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it, thus forming a work based on the Program, and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above, provided that you also meet all of these conditions: [...] b) You must cause any work that you distribute or publish, that in whole or in part contains or is derived from the Program or any part thereof, to be licensed as a whole at no charge to all third parties under the terms of this License. [...] These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program, and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves, then this License, and its terms, do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Program, the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License, whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole, and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it. }} It should be noted that the GPLv3 has a different clause: {{quote| You may convey a work based on the Program, or the modifications to produce it from the Program, in the form of source code under the terms of Section 4, provided that you also meet all of these conditions: [...] c) You must license the entire work, as a whole, under this License to anyone who comes into possession of a copy. This License will therefore apply, along with any applicable Section 7 additional terms, to the whole of the work, and all its parts, regardless of how they are packaged. This License gives no permission to license the work in any other way, but it does not invalidate such permission if you have separately received it. [...] A compilation of a covered work with other separate and independent works, which are not by their nature extensions of the covered work, and which are not combined with it such as to form a larger program, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the compilation and its resulting copyright are not used to limit the access or legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit. Inclusion of a covered work in an aggregate does not cause this License to apply to the other parts of the aggregate. }} As a case study, some supposedly proprietary [[plugins]] and [[theme (computing)|theme]]s/[[skin (computing)|skin]]s for GPLv2 [[Content management system|CMS]] software such as [[Drupal]] and [[WordPress]] have come under fire, with both sides of the argument taken.{{cite web | url=http://www.webmaster-source.com/2009/01/29/why-theyre-wrong-wordpress-plugins-shouldnt-have-to-be-gpl/ | title=Why They’re Wrong: WordPress Plugins Shouldn’t Have to be GPL | publisher=Webmaster-source.com | date=29 January 2009 | accessdate=15 January 2011}}{{cite web | url=http://drupal.org/licensing/faq#q7 | title=Licensing FAQ | publisher=Drupal.org | accessdate=15 January 2011}} The FSF differentiates on how the plugin is being invoked. If the plugin is invoked through dynamic linkage and it performs function calls to the GPL program then it is most likely a derivative work.{{cite web | url=https://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-faq.html#GPLPluginsInNF | title=Frequently Asked Questions about the GNU Licenses – GNU Project – Free Software Foundation (FSF) | publisher=Gnu.org | accessdate=15 January 2011}} === Communicating and bundling with non-GPL programs === The mere act of communicating with other programs does not, by itself, require all software to be GPL; nor does distributing GPL software with non-GPL software. However, minor conditions must be followed that ensures the rights of GPL software is not restricted. The following is a quote from the [[gnu.org]] GPL [[FAQ]], which describes to what extent software is allowed to communicate with and be-bundled-with GPL programs: {{quote| ''What is the difference between an "aggregate" and other kinds of "modified versions"?'' An "aggregate" consists of a number of separate programs, distributed together on the same CD-ROM or other media. The GPL permits you to create and distribute an aggregate, even when the licenses of the other software are non-free or GPL-incompatible. The only condition is that you cannot release the aggregate under a license that prohibits users from exercising rights that each program's individual license would grant them. Where's the line between two separate programs, and one program with two parts? This is a legal question, which ultimately judges will decide. We believe that a proper criterion depends both on the mechanism of communication (exec, pipes, rpc, function calls within a shared address space, etc.) and the semantics of the communication (what kinds of information are interchanged). If the modules are included in the same executable file, they are definitely combined in one program. If modules are designed to run linked together in a shared address space, that almost surely means combining them into one program. By contrast, pipes, sockets and command-line arguments are communication mechanisms normally used between two separate programs. So when they are used for communication, the modules normally are separate programs. But if the semantics of the communication are intimate enough, exchanging complex internal data structures, that too could be a basis to consider the two parts as combined into a larger program. }}[http://www.gnu.org/licenses/old-licenses/gpl-2.0-faq.html#MereAggregation MereAggregation] ''" What constitutes combining two parts into one program? This is a legal question, which ultimately judges will decide. We believe that a proper criterion depends both on the mechanism of communication (exec, pipes, rpc, function calls within a shared address space, etc.) and the semantics of the communication (what kinds of information are interchanged)."'' on gnu.org The FSF thus draws the line between "library" and "other program" via 1) "complexity" and "intimacy" of information exchange, and 2) mechanism (rather than semantics), but resigns that the question is not clear-cut and that in complex situations, case law will decide. == Legal status == The first known violation of the GPL was in 1989, when [[NeXT]] extended the [[GNU Compiler Collection|GCC]] compiler to support [[Objective-C]], but did not publicly release the changes.[http://ebb.org/bkuhn/talks/LinuxTag-2011/compliance.html 12 Years of GPL Compliance: A Historical Perspective], Slide 10 After an inquiry they created a public [[Patch (Unix)|patch]]. There was no lawsuit filed for this violation. In 2002, [[MySQL AB]] sued Progress NuSphere for copyright and trademark infringement in [[U.S. District Court for the District of Massachusetts|United States district court]]. NuSphere had allegedly violated MySQL's copyright by linking MySQL's GPL'ed code with NuSphere Gemini table without being in compliance with the license. After a preliminary hearing before Judge Patti Saris on 27 February 2002, the parties entered settlement talks and eventually settled.See ''Progress Software Corporation v. MySQL AB'', 195 F. Supp. 2d 328 (D. Mass. 2002), on defendant's motion for preliminary injunction. After the hearing, FSF commented that "Judge Saris made clear that she sees the GNU GPL to be an enforceable and binding license."{{cite web | url=https://www.gnu.org/press/2002-03-01-pi-MySQL.html | title=Judge Saris defers GNU GPL Questions for Trial in MySQL vs. Progress Software | publisher=gnu.org | accessdate=24 March 2011}} In August 2003, the [[SCO Group]] stated that they believed the GPL to have no legal validity, and that they intended to pursue lawsuits over sections of code supposedly copied from SCO Unix into the [[Linux kernel]]. This was a problematic stand for them, as they had distributed Linux and other GPL'ed code in their [[Caldera OpenLinux]] distribution, and there is little evidence that they had any legal right to do so except under the terms of the GPL. For more information, see [[SCO-Linux controversies]] and [[SCO v. IBM]]. In April 2004, the [[netfilter]]/[[iptables]] project was granted a preliminary [[injunction]] against Sitecom Germany by [[Munich]] District Court after Sitecom refused to desist from distributing Netfilter's GPL'ed software in violation of the terms of the GPL. [[Harald Welte]], of Netfilter, was represented by [[ifrOSS]] co-founder Till Jaeger. On July 2004, the German court confirmed this injunction as a final ruling against Sitecom.{{cite web|url=http://www.groklaw.net/article.php?story=20040725150736471|title=Groklaw - The German GPL Order - Translated|work=groklaw.net}} The court's justification was that: :Defendant has infringed on the copyright of plaintiff by offering the software 'netfilter/iptables' for download and by advertising its distribution, without adhering to the license conditions of the GPL. Said actions would only be permissible if defendant had a license grant... This is independent of the questions whether the licensing conditions of the GPL have been effectively agreed upon between plaintiff and defendant or not. If the GPL were not agreed upon by the parties, defendant would notwithstanding lack the necessary rights to copy, distribute, and make the software 'netfilter/iptables' publicly available. This exactly mirrored the predictions given previously by the FSF's [[Eben Moglen]]. This ruling was important because it was the first time that a court had confirmed that violating terms of the GPL could be a copyright violation and established jurisprudence as to the enforceability of the GPL version 2 under German law.Bird & Bird, [http://www.twobirds.com/English/News/Articles/Pages/2007/Review_German_GNU_General_Public_License.aspx A Review of German Case Law on the GNU General Public License], 17 December 2007, retrieved 1 March 2012 In May 2005, Daniel Wallace [[Wallace v. International Business Machines Corp. et al.|filed suit]] against the Free Software Foundation in the [[U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Indiana|Southern District of Indiana]], contending that the GPL is an illegal attempt to fix prices (at zero). The suit was dismissed in March 2006, on the grounds that Wallace had failed to state a valid anti-trust claim; the court noted that "the GPL encourages, rather than discourages, free competition and the distribution of computer operating systems, the benefits of which directly pass to consumers".[http://www.groklaw.net/pdf/WallaceFSFGrantingDismiss.pdf Dismissal] of Wallace v. FSF. From [http://www.groklaw.net/article.php?story=20060320201540127 this article] on Groklaw. Wallace was denied the possibility of further amending his complaint, and was ordered to pay the FSF's legal expenses. On 8 September 2005, the Seoul Central District Court ruled that the GPL was not material to a case dealing with [[trade secret]]s derived from GPL-licensed work.{{cite web|url=http://korea.gnu.org/gv/sentence.html|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20071018211119/http://korea.gnu.org/gv/sentence.html|title=판결문 - GNU 프로젝트 - 자유 소프트웨어 재단(FSF)|archivedate=18 October 2007|work=gnu.org}} Defendants argued that since it is impossible to maintain trade secrets while being compliant with GPL and distributing the work, they are not in breach of trade secrets. This argument was considered without ground. On 6 September 2006, the [[gpl-violations.org]] project prevailed in court litigation against [[D-Link]] Germany GmbH regarding D-Link's copyright-infringing use of parts of the [[Linux Kernel]] in [[Network-attached storage|storage]] devices they distributed.[http://gpl-violations.org/news/20060922-dlink-judgement_frankfurt.html gpl-violations.org project prevails in court case on GPL violation by D-Link] The judgment stated that the GPL is valid, legally binding, and stands in German court.[http://www.jbb.de/judgment_dc_frankfurt_gpl.pdf D-Link Judgment (English translation)] {{en icon}} [http://www.jbb.de/fileadmin/download/urteil_lg_muenchen_gpl.pdf D-Link Judgement] {{de icon}} In late 2007, the [[BusyBox]] developers and the [[Software Freedom Law Center]] embarked upon a program to gain GPL compliance from distributors of BusyBox in [[embedded system]]s, suing those who would not comply. These were claimed to be the first US uses of courts for enforcement of GPL obligations. ''See'' [[BusyBox#GPL lawsuits|BusyBox GPL lawsuits]]. On 11 December 2008, the Free Software Foundation [[Free Software Foundation v. Cisco Systems|sued Cisco Systems, Inc.]] for copyright violations by its Linksys division, of the FSF's GPL-licensed [[coreutils]], [[readline]], [[Parted]], [[Wget]], [[GNU Compiler Collection]], [[binutils]], and [[GNU Debugger]] software packages, which Linksys distributes in the Linux firmware{{cite web | url=http://www.linuxjournal.com/article/7322 | title=Linux on Linksys Wi-Fi Routers | publisher=Linux Journal | date=1 August 2004 | accessdate=23 January 2012 | author=Ewing, James}} of its [[WRT54G]] [[wireless router]]s, as well as numerous other devices including DSL and Cable modems, Network Attached Storage devices, Voice-Over-IP gateways, Virtual Private Network devices and a home theater/media player device.{{cite press release |title=Free Software Foundation Files Suit Against Cisco For GPL Violations|publisher=Free Software Foundation |date=11 December 2008 |url=https://www.fsf.org/news/2008-12-cisco-suit |accessdate=22 August 2011}} After six years of repeated complaints to Cisco by the FSF, claims by Cisco that they would correct, or were correcting, their compliance problems (not providing complete copies of all source code and their modifications), of repeated new violations being discovered and reported with more products, and lack of action by Linksys (a process described on the FSF blog as a "five-years-running game of Whack-a-Mole") the FSF took them to court. Cisco settled the case six months later by agreeing "to appoint a Free Software Director for Linksys" to ensure compliance, "to notify previous recipients of Linksys products containing FSF programs of their rights under the GPL," to make source code of FSF programs freely available on its website, and to make a monetary contribution to the FSF.{{cite press release |url= https://www.fsf.org/news/2009-05-cisco-settlement.html |title=FSF Settles Suit Against Cisco |publisher=Free Software Foundation |date=20 May 2009 |accessdate=22 August 2011}} In 2011 it was noticed that [[GNU Emacs]] had violated its GPL license for the previous two years.{{cite web|url=http://www.networkworld.com/article/2220304/opensource-subnet/say-what--gnu-emacs-violates-the-gpl.html |title=Say what? GNU Emacs violates the GPL |publisher=[[Network World]] | date=Jul 29, 2011 |first=Joe |last=Brockmeier |accessdate=2016-01-19}}[http://brownrudnick.com/blog/emerging-technologies/license-revoked-applying-section-4-of-the-gpl-and-the-lessons-of-best-buy-to-googles-android/ License revoked: Applying Section 4 of the GPL and the lessons of Best Buy to Google’s Android] on brownrudnick.com by Edward J. Naughton (Aug 8, 2011)[http://developers.slashdot.org/story/11/07/29/1445252/Emacs-Has-Been-Violating-the-GPL-Since-2009 Emacs-Has-Been-Violating-the-GPL-Since-2009] on [[slashdot.org]] (2011) Richard Stallman described this incident as ''"a very bad mistake"'',[http://lists.gnu.org/archive/html/emacs-devel/2011-07/msg01155.html Re: Compiled files without sources????] Richard Stallman (28 Jul 2011) no lawsuit was filed for this violation. == Compatibility and multi-licensing == [[File:Quick-guide-gplv3-compatibility.svg|350px|thumb|Quick Guide of [[license compatibility]] with GPL according to the FSF. Dashed line indicates that the GPLv2 is only compatible with the GPLv3 if with the clause "or any later".]] Code licensed under several other licenses can be combined with a program under the GPL without conflict, as long as the combination of restrictions on the work as a whole does not put any additional restrictions beyond what GPL allows.{{cite web |url=https://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html |title=The GNU General Public License v3.0 – GNU Project – Free Software Foundation (FSF) |publisher=fsf.org |accessdate=24 March 2010}} In addition to the regular terms of the GPL, there are additional restrictions and permissions one can apply: # If a user wants to combine code licensed under different versions of GPL, then this is only allowed if the code with the older GPL version includes an "any later version" statement.{{cite web| url=https://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-faq.html#v2v3Compatibility| title=Frequently Asked Questions about the GNU Licenses – Is GPLv3 compatible with GPLv2?| publisher=gnu.org| accessdate=3 June 2014 |quote=''No. Some of the requirements in GPLv3, such as the requirement to provide Installation Information, do not exist in GPLv2. As a result, the licenses are not compatible: if you tried to combine code released under both these licenses, you would violate section 6 of GPLv2. However, if code is released under GPL “version 2 or later,” that is compatible with GPLv3 because GPLv3 is one of the options it permits.''}} For instance, the GPLv3 licensed [[GNU LibreDWG]] library can't be used anymore by [[LibreCAD]] and [[FreeCAD]] who have GPLv2 only dependencies.{{cite web|url=http://www.phoronix.com/scan.php?page=news_item&px=MTI4Mjc |title=FSF Wastes Away Another "High Priority" Project |first=Michael |last=Larabel |date=24 January 2013|publisher=[[Phoronix]] |accessdate=22 August 2013 |quote=''Both LibreCAD and FreeCAD both want to use LibreDWG and have patches available for supporting the DWG file format library, but can't integrate them. The programs have dependencies on the popular GPLv2 license while the Free Software Foundation will only let LibreDWG be licensed for GPLv3 use, not GPLv2.''}}{{cite web|url=http://libregraphicsworld.org/blog/entry/libredwg-drama-the-end-or-the-new-beginning|title=LibreDWG drama: the end or the new beginning? |first=Alexandre |last=Prokoudine |date=27 December 2012 |quote=''[...]the unfortunate situation with support for DWG files in free CAD software via LibreDWG. We feel, by now it ought to be closed. We have the final answer from FSF. [...] "We are not going to change the license."'' |accessdate=23 August 2013 |publisher=libregraphicsworld.org}} # Code licensed under [[LGPL]] is permitted to be linked with any other code no matter what license that code has,{{cite web |url=https://www.gnu.org/licenses/old-licenses/lgpl-2.1.html#SEC2 |title=GNU Lesser General Public License v2.1 – GNU Project – Free Software Foundation (FSF) |publisher=fsf.org |accessdate=26 April 2011}} though the LGPL does add additional requirements for the combined work. LGPLv3 and GPLv2-only can thus commonly not be linked, as the combined Code work would add additional LGPLv3 requirements on top of the GPLv2-only licensed software. Code licensed under LGPLv2.x without the "any later version" statement can be [[Software relicensing|relicensed]] if the whole combined work is licensed to GPLv2 or GPLv3.{{cite web| url=https://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-faq.html#AllCompatibility| title=Frequently Asked Questions about the GNU Licenses – How are the various GNU licenses compatible with each other?| publisher=The official site| accessdate=13 April 2011}} FSF maintains a list{{cite web | url=https://www.gnu.org/licenses/license-list.html#GPLCompatibleLicenses | title = Various licenses with comments – GPL-Compatible Free Software Licenses | publisher = FSF | accessdate = 20 April 2012}} of GPL-[[License compatibility|compatible]] free software licenses{{cite web |url=https://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-faq.html#WhatIsCompatible |title=Frequently Asked Questions about the GNU Licenses – What does it mean to say that two licenses are "compatible"? |publisher=FSF |accessdate=14 April 2011}}{{cite web |url=https://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-faq.html#WhatDoesCompatMean |title=Frequently Asked Questions about the GNU Licenses – What does it mean to say a license is "compatible with the GPL?" |publisher=FSF |accessdate=14 April 2011}} with many of the most common free software licenses, such as the original [[MIT License|MIT/X license]], the [[BSD license]] (in its current 3-clause form) and the [[Artistic License]] 2.0.{{cite web |url=http://www.blackducksoftware.com/oss/licenses/ |title=Black Duck Open Source Resource Center |publisher=blackducksoftware.com |accessdate=26 April 2011 }} [[David A. Wheeler]] has advocated that free/open source software developers use only GPL-compatible licenses, because doing otherwise makes it difficult for others to participate and contribute code.{{cite web |url=http://www.dwheeler.com/essays/gpl-compatible.html |title=Make Your Open Source Software GPL-Compatible. Or Else. |publisher=David A. Wheeler |accessdate=26 April 2011}} As a specific example of license incompatibility, [[Sun Microsystems]]' [[ZFS]] cannot be included in the GPL-licensed Linux kernel, because it is licensed under the GPL-incompatible [[CDDL]]. Furthermore, ZFS is protected by patents, so distributing an independently developed GPL-ed implementation would still require Oracle's permission.[http://kerneltrap.org/node/8066 Linux: ZFS, Licenses and Patents | KernelTrap] A number of businesses use [[multi-licensing]] to distribute a GPL version and sell a [[proprietary software|proprietary]] license to companies wishing to combine the package with proprietary code, using dynamic linking or not. Examples of such companies include [[MySQL AB]], [[Digia PLC]] ([[Qt (framework)|Qt framework]], before 2011 from [[Nokia]]), [[Red Hat]] ([[Cygwin]]) and Riverbank Computing ([[PyQt]]). Other companies, like the [[Mozilla Foundation]] (products include [[Mozilla Application Suite]], [[Mozilla Thunderbird]] and [[Mozilla Firefox]]), used multi-licensing to distribute versions under the GPL and some other open-source licenses. === Use for text and other media === It is possible to use the GPL for text documents instead of computer programs, or more generally for all kinds of media, if it is clear what constitutes the source code (defined as "the preferred form of the work for making changes in it").Free Software Foundation: [https://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-faq.html#GPLOtherThanSoftware Frequently Asked Questions about the GNU Licenses: Can I use the GPL for something other than software?]. Retrieved 20 June 2009. For manuals and textbooks, though, the FSF recommends the [[GNU Free Documentation License]] (GFDL) instead, which it created for this purpose.GNU project: [https://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-faq.html#WhyNotGPLForManuals Frequently Asked Questions about the GNU Licenses: Why don't you use the GPL for manuals?] . Retrieved 20 June 2009. Nevertheless, the [[Debian]] developers recommended (in a resolution adopted in 2006) to license documentation for their project under the GPL, because of the incompatibility of the GFDL with the GPL (text licensed under the GFDL cannot be incorporated into GPL software).{{cite web|url=http://people.debian.org/~srivasta/Position_Statement.xhtml |title=Draft Debian Position Statement about the GNU Free Documentation License (GFDL)|year=2006 |accessdate=2007-09-25 |first=Manoj |last=Srivastava |quote=''It is not possible to borrow text from a GFDL'd manual and incorporate it in any free software program whatsoever. This is not a mere license incompatibility. It's not just that the GFDL is incompatible with this or that free software license: it's that it is fundamentally incompatible with any free software license whatsoever. So if you write a new program, and you have no commitments at all about what license you want to use, saving only that it be a free license, you cannot include GFDL'd text. The GNU FDL, as it stands today, does not meet the Debian Free Software Guidelines. There are significant problems with the license, as detailed above; and, as such, we cannot accept works licensed under the GNU FDL into our distribution.''}}Debian Project: [http://www.debian.org/vote/2006/vote_001.en.html#amendmenttexta Resolution: Why the GNU Free Documentation License is not suitable for Debian]. Voted February–March 2006. Retrieved 20 June 2009. Also, the [[FLOSS Manuals]] foundation, an organization devoted to creating manuals for free software, decided to eschew the GFDL in favor of the GPL for its texts in 2007.FLOSS Manuals foundation: [http://en.flossmanuals.net/bin/view/Blog/LicenseChange License Change] 6 June 2007. Retrieved 20 June 2009.{{dead link|date=May 2016}} If the GPL is used for fonts, any documents or images made with such fonts might also have to be distributed under the terms of the GPL. This is not the case in countries like the US and Canada where [[copyright]] law is inapplicable to the appearance of fonts, though program code inside a font file may still be covered—which can complicate font embedding (since the document could be considered 'linked' to the font). FSF provides [[GPL font exception|an exception]] for cases where this is not desired.{{cite web |url=http://www.fsf.org/blogs/licensing/20050425novalis |title=Font Licensing}}{{cite web |url=https://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-faq.html#FontException |title=How does the GPL apply to fonts?}} == Adoption == Historically, the GPL license family has been one of the most popular software licenses in the [[FOSS]] domain. A 1997 survey of [[Ibiblio|MetaLab]], then the largest free software archive, showed that the GPL accounted for about half of the software licensed therein.{{cite web| url=http://www.dwheeler.com/essays/gpl-compatible.html | title=Make Your Open Source Software GPL-Compatible. Or Else | author=[[David A. Wheeler]]}} Similarly, a 2000 survey of [[Red Hat Linux]] 7.1 found that 53% of the source code was licensed under the GPL.{{cite web |url=http://www.dwheeler.com/sloc/redhat62-v1/redhat62sloc.html |title=Estimating Linux's Size |author=David A. Wheeler}} {{As of|2003|alt=As of 2003}}, about 68% of all projects and 82.1% of the OSI certified licensed projects listed on [[SourceForge.net]] were from the GPL license family.{{cite web|url=http://www.dwheeler.com/frozen/sourceforge-stats-20031110.html |title=SourceForge.net: Software Map |publisher=Dwheeler.com |accessdate=17 November 2008 |quote =''"License -> OSI: [...] GNU General Public License (GPL) (32641 projects), GNU Library or Lesser General Public License (LGPL) (4889 projects" (of 45727, 82.1%)''}} {{As of|2008|08}}, the GPL family accounted for 70.9% of the 44,927 [[free software]] projects listed on [[Freecode]].{{cite web |url = http://www.freecode.com/stats/ |title = Freecode's statistics page|archiveurl = https://web.archive.org/web/20080828100318/http://www.freecode.com/stats/|archivedate = 2008-08-28|quote=GPL 60.5%, lGPLv2 6.9%, GPLv2 1.9% GPLv3 1.6%}} After the release of the GPLv3 in June 2007, the acceptance and adoption of this new GPL version was heavily discussed;{{cite web|url=http://socializedsoftware.com/2008/05/08/the-curse-of-open-source-license-proliferation/ |title=The Curse of Open Source License Proliferation |author=Mark |date=2008-05-08 |accessdate=2015-11-30 |publisher=socializedsoftware.com |quote=''Currently the decision to move from GPL v2 to GPL v3 is being hotly debated by many open source projects. According to Palamida, a provider of IP compliance software, there have been roughly 2489 open source projects that have moved from GPL v2 to later versions.''}} several projects decided against upgrading. For instance the [[linux kernel]], [[MySQL]],[http://web.archive.org/web/20070206060251/http://www.businessreviewonline.com/os/archives/2007/01/mysql_changes_l.html MySQL changes license to avoid GPLv3] on Computer business review online (January 04, 2007) [[BusyBox]],{{cite web|url=http://lwn.net/Articles/202106/ |title=Busy busy busybox |date=2006-10-01 |author=corbet |publisher=lwn.net |quote=''Since BusyBox can be found in so many embedded systems, it finds itself at the core of the GPLv3 anti-DRM debate. [...]The real outcomes, however, are this: BusyBox will be GPLv2 only starting with the next release. It is generally accepted that stripping out the "or any later version" is legally defensible, and that the merging of other GPLv2-only code will force that issue in any case'' |accessdate=2015-11-21}}{{cite web|url=http://lwn.net/Articles/202110/|first=Rob |last=Landley |title=Re: Move GPLv2 vs v3 fun... |date=2006-09-09 |publisher=lwn.net |accessdate=2015-11-21 |quote=''Don't invent a straw man argument please. I consider licensing BusyBox under GPLv3 to be useless, unnecessary, overcomplicated, and confusing, and in addition to that it has actual downsides. 1) Useless: We're never dropping GPLv2.''}} [[AdvFS]],[http://www.hp.com/hpinfo/newsroom/press/2008/080623a.html Press release concerning the release of the AdvFS source code] [[Blender (software)|Blender]],{{cite web |url=http://libregraphicsworld.org/blog/entry/whats-up-with-dwg-adoption-in-free-software |title=What's up with DWG adoption in free software? |last=Prokoudine |first=Alexandre |date=26 January 2012 |accessdate=2015-12-05 |trans_title= |publisher=libregraphicsworld.org |quote=''[Blender's Toni Roosendaal:] "Blender is also still "GPLv2 or later". For the time being we stick to that, moving to GPL 3 has no evident benefits I know of."''}} and as also the [[VLC media player]] decided against adopting the GPLv3.{{cite web|url=http://www.videolan.org/press/2007-1.html |title=VLC media player to remain under GNU GPL version 2 |quote=''In 2001, VLC was released under the OSI-approved GNU General Public version 2, with the commonly-offered option to use "any later version" thereof (though there was not any such later version at the time). Following the release by the Free Software Foundation (FSF) of the new version 3 of its GNU General Public License (GPL) on the 29th of June 2007, contributors to the VLC media player, and other software projects hosted at videolan.org, debated the possibility of updating the licensing terms for future version of the VLC media player and other hosted projects, to version 3 of the GPL. [...] There is strong concern that these new additional requirements might not match the industrial and economic reality of our time, especially in the market of consumer electronics. It is our belief that changing our licensing terms to GPL version 3 would currently not be in the best interest of our community as a whole. Consequently, we plan to keep distributing future versions of VLC media player under the terms of the GPL version 2. |publisher=videolan.org |accessdate=2015-11-21 |first=Rémi |last=Denis-Courmont}} On the other hand, in 2009, two years after the release of the GPLv3, [[Google]] open-source programs office manager Chris DiBona reported that the number of open-source projects licensed software that had moved to GPLv3 from GPLv2 was 50%, counting the projects hosted at [[Google Code]].{{cite web|last=Asay |first=Matt |url=http://news.cnet.com/8301-13505_3-10294452-16.html |title=GPLv3 hits 50 percent adoption | The Open Road - CNET News |publisher=News.cnet.com |date=23 July 2009 |accessdate=2 September 2013}} In 2011, four years after the release of the GPLv3, 6.5% of all open-source license projects are GPLv3 while 42.5% are GPLv2 according to [[Black Duck Software]] data.[http://www.itworld.com/article/2832379/it-management/gpl--copyleft-use-declining-faster-than-ever.html GPL, copyleft use declining faster than ever] on ITworld on December 16, 2011 by Brian Proffitt Following in 2011 ''451 Group'' analyst Matthew Aslett argued in a blog post that copyleft licenses went into decline and permissive licenses increased, based on statistics from Black Duck Software.{{cite web|url=http://www.itworld.com/it-managementstrategy/233753/gpl-copyleft-use-declining-faster-ever |title=GPL, copyleft use declining faster than ever - Data suggests a sharper rate of decline, which raises the question: why? |first=Brian |last=Proffitt |date=16 December 2011 |accessdate=23 August 2013 |publisher=IT world}}{{cite web|url=https://blogs.the451group.com/opensource/2011/12/15/on-the-continuing-decline-of-the-gpl/ |title=On the continuing decline of the GPL|first=Matthew |last=Aslett |date=2011-12-15 |publisher=the451group.com}} Similarly, in February 2012 Jon Buys reported that among the top 50 projects on [[GitHub]] five projects were under a GPL license, including dual licensed and AGPL projects.[http://ostatic.com/blog/the-top-licenses-on-github The Top Licenses on Github] on ostatic.com by Jon Buys (Feb. 07, 2012) GPL usage statistic from 2009 to 2013 was extracted from [[Freecode]] data by Walter van Holst while analyzing [[license proliferation]].[https://lwn.net/Articles/547400/ License proliferation: a naive quantitative analysis] on [[lwn.net]] ''"Walter van Holst is a legal consultant at the Dutch IT consulting company mitopics. .[...] Walter instead chose to use data from a software index, namely Freecode [...] Walter's 2009 data set consisted of 38,674 projects [...]The final column in the table shows the number of projects licensed under "any version of the GPL". In addition, Walter presented pie charts that showed the proportion of projects under various common licenses. Notable in those data sets was that, whereas in 2009 the proportion of projects licensed GPLv2-only and GPLv3 was respectively 3% and 2%, by 2013, those numbers had risen to 7% and 5%."'' {| class="wikitable sortable" |+Usage of GPL family licenses in % on [[Freecode]] |- !2009 !2010 !2011 !2012 !2013 !2014-06-18[http://freecode.com/tags/letter/G?page=4 tags letter g] tagged as GPL family (including misnamed variants) 21000+100+3000+2000+400 of 47985 projects on freecode (2014-06-18 frozen)[http://freecode.com/about About Freecode] on freecode.com ''"The Freecode site has been moved to a static state effective June 18, 2014 due to low traffic levels and so that folks will focus on more useful endeavors than site upkeep."'' |- |72% || 63% || 61% ||59% || 58% || approx. 54% |} In August 2013, according to [[Black Duck Software]], the website's data show that the GPL license family is used by 54% of open-source projects, with a breakdown of the individual licenses shown in the following table.{{cite web|url=http://www.blackducksoftware.com/resources/data/top-20-licenses |quote=''1. GNU General Public License (GPL) 2.0 33%, 2. Apache License 13%, 3. GNU General Public License (GPL) 3.0 12%'' |title=Top 20 licenses |publisher=[[Black Duck Software]] |accessdate=23 August 2013 |date=23 August 2013}} However, a later study in 2013 showed that software licensed under the GPL license family has increased, and that even the data from Black Duck Software have shown a total increase of software projects licensed under GPL. The study used public information gathered from repositories of the [[Debian|Debian Project]], and the study criticized Black Duck Software for not publishing their methodology used in collecting statistics.{{cite web|url=http://www.itwire.com/business-it-news/open-source/52838-gpl-use-in-debian-on-the-rise-study |title=GPL use in Debian on the rise: study |publisher=Itwire.com |date= |accessdate=2 September 2013}} Daniel German, Professor in the Department of Computer Science at the [[University of Victoria]] in Canada, presented a talk in 2013 about the methodological challenges in determining which are the most widely used free software licenses, and showed how he could not replicate the result from Black Duck Software.{{cite web|url=https://lwn.net/Articles/547400/ |title=Surveying open source licenses |publisher=Lwn.net |date= |accessdate=2 September 2013}} In 2015 according to BlackDuck the GPLv2 lost its first position on the [[MIT license]] and is now second, the GPLv3 dropped to fourth place while the [[Apache license]] kept its third position. {| class="wikitable sortable" |+Usage of GPL family licenses in the FOSS domain in % according to [[Black Duck Software]] |- ! License ! 2008-05-08{{cite web|url=http://socializedsoftware.com/2008/05/08/the-curse-of-open-source-license-proliferation/|title=The Curse of Open Source License Proliferation |author=Mark|date=2008-05-08 |accessdate=2015-11-30 |publisher=socializedsoftware.com|quote=''GNU General Public License (GPL) 2.0 58.69% GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) 2.1 11.39% Artistic License (Perl) 7.46% BSD License 6.50% Apache License 2.0 2.92% MIT License 2.58% GNU General Public Liense (GPL) 3.0 1.64% Mozilla Public License (MPL) 1.1 1.37% Common Public License 0.83% zlib/lippng License 0.64%''}} ! 2009-03-11[http://connollyshaun.blogspot.com/2009/03/top-20-most-commonly-used-open-source.html Top 20 Most Commonly Used Open Source Licenses] Shaun Connolly, March 11, 2009 ! 2011-11-22 ! 2013-08-12 ! 2015-11-19{{cite web|url=http://www.blackducksoftware.com/resources/data/top-20-licenses |quote=''1. MIT license 24%, 2. GNU General Public License (GPL) 2.0 23%, 3. Apache License 16%, 4. GNU General Public License (GPL) 3.0 9%, 5. BSD License 2.0 (3-clause, New or Revised) License 6%, 6. GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) 2.1 5%, 7. Artistic License (Perl) 4%, 8. GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) 3.0 2%, 9. Microsoft Public License 2%, 10. Eclipse Public License (EPL) 2%'' |title=Top 20 licenses |publisher=[[Black Duck Software]] |accessdate=19 November 2015 |date=19 November 2015}} ! 2016-06-06{{cite web|url=http://www.blackducksoftware.com/resources/data/top-20-licenses |quote=''1 MIT License 26% 2 GNU General Public License (GPL) 2.0 21% 3 Apache License 2.0 16% GNU General Public License (GPL) 3.0 9% 5 BSD License 2.0 (3-clause, New or Revised) License 6% 6 GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) 2.1 4% 7 Artistic License (Perl) 4% 8 GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) 3.0 2% 9 ISC License 2% 10 Microsoft Public License 2% 11 Eclipse Public License (EPL) 2% 12 Code Project Open License 1.02 1% 13 Mozilla Public License (MPL) 1.1 < 1%="" 14="" simplified="" bsd="" license="" (bsd)="">< 1%="" 15="" common="" development="" and="" distribution="" license="" (cddl)="">< 1%="" 16="" gnu="" affero="" general="" public="" license="" v3="" or="" later="">< 1%="" 17="" microsoft="" reciprocal="" license="">< 1%="" 18="" sun="" gpl="" with="" classpath="" exception="" v2.0="">< 1%="" 19="" do="" what="" the="" fuck="" you="" want="" to="" public="" license="">< 1%="" 20="" cddl-1.1''="" |title="Top" 20="" licenses="" |publisher="[[Black" duck="" software]]="" |accessdate="6" june="" 2016="" |date="6" june="" 2016=""> |- | GPLv2 | 58.69% | 52.2% | 42.5% | 33% | 23% | 21% |- | GPLv3 | 1.64% | 4.15% | 6.5% | 12% | 9% | 9% |- | LGPL 2.1 | 11.39% | 9.84% | ? | 6% | 5% | 4% |- | LGPL 3.0 | ? (<0.64%) |="" 0.37%="" |="" |="" 3%="" |="" 2%="" |="" 2%="" |-="" |="" gpl="" family="" together="" |="" 71.72%="" (+=""><0.64%) |="" 66.56%="" |="" |="" 54%="" |="" 39%="" |="" 36%="" |}="" a="" march="" 2015="" analysis="" of="" the="" [[github]]="" repositories="" revealed="" for="" the="" gpl="" license="" family="" an="" usage="" percentage="" of="" approx.="">{{cite web|url=https://github.com/blog/1964-license-usage-on-github-com |quote=1 MIT 44.69%, 2 Other 15.68%, 3 GPLv2 12.96%, 4 Apache 11.19%, 5 GPLv3 8.88%, 6 BSD 3-clause 4.53%, 7 Unlicense 1.87%, 8 BSD 2-clause 1.70%, 9 LGPLv3 1.30%, 10 AGPLv3 1.05% |title=Open source license usage on GitHub.com |date=2015-03-09 |first=Ben |last=Balter |accessdate=2015-11-21 |publisher=[[github.com]]}} In June 2016 an analysis of [[Fedora Project]]'s packages revealed as most used licenses the MIT, GPL, BSD, and the LGPL.{{cite web|url=https://anweshadas.in/software-licenses-in-fedora-ecosystem/ |title=Software Licenses in Fedora Ecosystem |date=22 June 2016 |accessdate=2016-06-27 |publisher=anweshadas.in |author=Anwesha Das |quote=''In the above bar-chart I have counted GPL and its different versions as one family, and I did the same with LGPL too. From this diagram it is very much clear that the MIT License is the most used license, with a total number of use case of 2706.Therefore comes GPL(i.e GNU General Public License) and its different versions, BSD, LGPL(i.e GNU Lesser General Public License) and its different versions, ASL (i.e Apache Software License) family, MPL (i.e Mozilla Public License). Apart from these licenses there are projects who has submitted themselves in to Public Domain and that number is 137.''}} == Reception == {{cleanup rewrite|section|date=January 2013}} === Legal barrier to app stores === The GPL License is incompatible with many application [[digital distribution]] systems, like the [[Mac App Store]], and certain other software distribution platforms (on smartphones as well as PCs). The problem lies in the right "To make a copy for your neighbour", as this right is violated by the integrated DRM-Systems made to prevent copying of paid software. Even if the application is free-as-in-beer in the App Store in question, it might result in a violation of that app store's terms."[http://www.tuaw.com/2011/01/09/the-gpl-the-app-store-and-you/ The GPL, the App Store and You]" on tuaw.com (2011) Note that there is a distinction between an app ''store'', which sells [[Digital rights management|DRM]]-restricted software under proprietary licenses, and the more general concept of [[digital distribution]] via some form of online software repository. Various UNIX-like [[Linux distribution|distributions]] provide app repositories, including [[Fedora]], [[RHEL]], [[CentOS]], [[Ubuntu (operating system)|Ubuntu]], [[Debian]], [[FreeBSD]], [[OpenBSD]] and so on. These specific app repos all contain GPL-licensed software apps, in some cases even when the core project does not permit GPL-licensed code in the base system (for instance OpenBSD[http://www.openbsd.org/policy.html "Copyright Policy"], OpenBSD). In other cases, such as the [[Ubuntu App Store]], proprietary commercial software applications ''and'' GPL-licensed applications are both available via the same system; the reason that the Mac App Store (and similar projects) is incompatible with GPL-licensed apps is not inherent in the concept of an app store, but is rather specifically due to Apple's terms-of-use requirement that all apps in the store utilize Apple DRM-restrictions. Ubuntu's app store does not demand any such requirement: "These terms do not limit or restrict your rights under any applicable open source software licenses."{{cite web|url=https://one.ubuntu.com/terms |title=Ubuntu One : Terms and Conditions |publisher=One.ubuntu.com |date=29 August 2013 |accessdate=25 September 2013}} === Microsoft === In 2001, [[Microsoft]] CEO [[Steve Ballmer]] referred to [[Linux]] as "a cancer that attaches itself in an intellectual property sense to everything it touches".{{cite news | first=Dave | last=Newbart | title=Microsoft CEO takes launch break with the Sun-Times | date=1 June 2001 |work=Chicago Sun-Times | url=http://suntimes.com/output/tech/cst-fin-micro01.html | archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20010615205548/http://suntimes.com/output/tech/cst-fin-micro01.html | archivedate=15 June 2001}}(Internet archive link)[http://www.dwheeler.com/frozen/microsoft-interix-gpl.txt text of GPL v1 with reference to source code download site at microsoft.com ] In response to Microsoft's attacks on the GPL, several prominent Free Software developers and advocates released a joint statement supporting the license.{{cite wikisource|title=Free Software Leaders Stand Together |last=|first= |year=|publisher= |page=|wspage= |scan=}} Microsoft has released [[Microsoft Windows Services for UNIX]], which contains GPL-licensed code. In July 2009, Microsoft itself released a body of around 20,000 lines of Linux driver code under the GPL.{{cite news | first=Gavin | last=Clarke | title=Microsoft embraces Linux cancer to sell Windows servers | date=20 July 2009 | publisher=[[The Register]] | url=http://www.theregister.co.uk/2009/07/20/microsoft_windows_drivers_linux/}} The [[Hyper-V]] code that is part of the submitted code used open-source components licensed under the GPL and was originally statically linked to proprietary binary parts, the latter being inadmissible in GPL-licensed software.{{cite news | first=Gavin | last=Clarke | title=Microsoft opened Linux-driver code after 'violating' GPL | date=23 July 2009| publisher=The Register | url=http://www.theregister.co.uk/2009/07/23/microsoft_hyperv_gpl_violation/}} ==== "Viral" nature ==== The description of the GPL as [[Viral license|"viral"]], when called 'General Public Virus' or 'GNU Public Virus' (GPV), dates back to a year after the GPLv1 was released.{{cite web |url=http://psg.com/lists/namedroppers/namedroppers.2006/msg00246.html |title=Re: Section 5.2 (IPR encumberance) in TAK rollover requirement draft |first=Paul |last=Vixie |authorlink=Paul Vixie |publisher=[[Internet Engineering Task Force|IETF]] Namedroppers mailing list |date=6 March 2006 |accessdate=29 April 2007 |archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20070927175628/http://psg.com/lists/namedroppers/namedroppers.2006/msg00246.html |archivedate = 27 September 2007}}{{cite web|url=http://catb.org/esr/jargon/oldversions/jarg221.txt|title=General Public Virus|work=[[Jargon File]] 2.2.1|date=15 December 1990 |accessdate=29 April 2007}}{{cite journal|url=http://devlinux.org/lw-gnu-published.html |title=Reverse-engineering the GNU Public Virus — Is copyleft too much of a good thing?|first=Stig|last=Hackvän|journal=[[Linux Journal]]|date=September 1999| accessdate=29 April 2007}}{{cite web|url=http://cypherpunks.venona.com/date/1998/10/msg00429.html|title=Re: propose: `cypherpunks license' (Re: Wanted: Twofish source code)|first=Bill|last=Stewart|publisher=[[Cypherpunk]]s mailing list|date=8 October 1998|accessdate=29 April 2007}}{{cite web|url=http://gcc.gnu.org/ml/gcc/2000-10/msg00198.html|title=Re: Using of parse tree externally|first=Joe|last=Buck|publisher=[[GNU Compiler Collection|GCC]] mailing list |date=10 October 2000|accessdate=29 April 2007}}{{cite web|url=http://themes.freshmeat.net/articles/view/172#comment-5548|title=The GNU Public Virus |first=L. Adrian |last=Griffis |date=15 July 2000|accessdate=29 April 2007}} In 2001 the term received broader public attention when [[Craig Mundie]], Microsoft Senior Vice President, described the GPL as being "viral"."[http://news.microsoft.com/speeches/speech-transcript-craig-mundie-the-new-york-university-stern-school-of-business/ Speech Transcript – Craig Mundie, The New York University Stern School of Business]", ''Prepared Text of Remarks by [[Craig Mundie]]'', Microsoft Senior Vice President, The Commercial Software Model The New York University Stern School of Business 3 May 2001 Mundie argues that the GPL has a "viral" effect in that it only allows the conveyance of whole programs, which means programs that [[GPL linking exception|link]] to GPL libraries must themselves be under a GPL-compatible license, else they cannot be combined and distributed. In 2006 Richard Stallman responded in an interview that Mundie's metaphor of a "virus" is wrong as software under the GPL does not "attack" or "infect" other software. Stallman believes that comparing the GPL to a virus is an extremely unfriendly thing to say, and that a better metaphor for software under the GPL would be a [[Chlorophytum comosum|spider plant]]: If one takes a piece of it and puts it somewhere else, it grows there too.{{cite web | last=Poynder | first=Richard | title=The Basement Interviews: Freeing the Code | date=21 March 2006 | accessdate=5 February 2010 | url=http://www.archive.org/stream/The_Basement_Interviews/Richard_Stallman_Interview_djvu.txt }}{{cite book | last=Chopra | first=Samir | last2=Dexter | first2=Scott | title=Decoding liberation: the promise of free and open source software | date=14 August 2007 | publisher=Routledge | isbn=0-415-97893-9 | page=56 | url=http://books.google.com/?id=c7ppFih2mSwC&lpg=PT74 }}{{cite book | last=Williams | first=Sam | title=Free as in Freedom: Richard Stallman's Crusade for Free Software | date=March 2002 | publisher=O'Reilly Media | url=http://oreilly.com/openbook/freedom/ch02.html | isbn=0-596-00287-4 }} On the other hand, the concept of a viral nature of the GPL was taken up by others later too.{{cite web|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20011222205401/http://icfcst.kiev.ua/panorama/OSS/bsd_vs_gpl.shtml |title=Comparative merits of GPL, BSD and Artistic licences (Critique of Viral Nature of GPL v.2 - or In Defense of Dual Licensing Idea) |archivedate=2001-12-22 |url=http://icfcst.kiev.ua/panorama/OSS/bsd_vs_gpl.shtml |author=[[Nikolai Bezroukov]] |quote=''Viral property stimulates proliferation of licenses and contributes to the "GPL-enforced nightmare" -- a situation when many other licenses are logically incompatible with the GPL and make life unnecessary difficult for developers working in the Linux environment (KDE is a good example here, Python is a less known example).'' |date=2001}}{{cite web|last=Geere |first=Duncan |url=http://www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/2011-12/16/alternatives-to-copyright |title=Some rights reserved: the alternatives to copyright (Wired UK) |publisher=Wired.co.uk |date=2011-12-16 |accessdate=2015-05-30}}{{cite web|url=http://a2knetwork.org/glossary |title=Glossary |publisher=A2Knetwork.org |date= |accessdate=2015-05-30}}{{cite web|url=http://www.friedfrank.com/siteFiles/Publications/ACC-GNY_Newsletter_OpenSourceInMATransactions.pdf |format=PDF |title=Inoculating Your Purchase – Contractual Protection from Viral Licenses in M&A Transactions |publisher=Friedfrank.com |accessdate=2015-05-30}}[http://www.buddlefindlay.com/article/2013/07/01/legal-update-on-information-and-communication-technology-%E2%80%93-july-2013 ] {{wayback|url=http://www.buddlefindlay.com/article/2013/07/01/legal-update-on-information-and-communication-technology-%E2%80%93-july-2013 |date=20150316223946 |df=y }} For instance in 2008 the [[California Western School of Law]] characterized the GPL as: ''"The GPL license is ‘viral,’ meaning any derivative work you create containing even the smallest portion of the previously GPL licensed software must also be licensed under the GPL license"''.{{cite web|url=http://www.newmediarights.org/open_source/new_media_rights_open_source_licensing_guide |title=Open Source Licensing Guide |author=New Media Rights |publisher=[[California Western School of Law]] |date=2008-09-12 |accessdate=2015-11-28 |quote=''The GPL license is ‘viral,’ meaning any derivative work you create containing even the smallest portion of the previously GPL licensed software must also be licensed under the GPL license.''}} === Barrier to commercialization === {{Main|Business models for open-source software}} The [[FreeBSD]] project has stated that ''"a less publicized and unintended use of the GPL is that it is very favorable to large companies that want to undercut software companies. In other words, the GPL is well suited for use as a marketing weapon, potentially reducing overall economic benefit and contributing to monopolistic behavior"'' and that the GPL can ''"present a real problem for those wishing to commercialize and profit from software"''.{{cite web|url=http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/bsdl-gpl/article.html#GPL-ADVANTAGES |title=GPL Advantages and Disadvantages |publisher=FreeBSD |first=Bruce |last=Montague |date=2013-11-13 |accessdate=2015-11-28}} Richard Stallman wrote about the practice of selling license exceptions to free software licenses as an example of ethically acceptable commercialization practice. Selling exceptions here means that the copyright holder of a given software releases it (along with the corresponding source code) to the public under a free software license, "then lets customers pay for permission to use the same code under different terms, for instance allowing its inclusion in proprietary applications". Stallman considered selling exceptions "acceptable since the 1990s, and on occasion I've suggested it to companies. Sometimes this approach has made it possible for important programs to become free software". Despite that the FSF doesn't practice selling exceptions, a comparison with the X11 license (which is a non-copyleft free software license) is proposed for suggesting that this commercialization technique should be regarded as ethically acceptable. Releasing a given program under a noncopyleft free software license would permit embedding the code in proprietary software. Stallman comments that "either we have to conclude that it's wrong to release anything under the X11 license—a conclusion I find unacceptably extreme—or reject this implication. Using a noncopyleft license is weak, and usually an inferior choice, but it's not wrong. In other words, selling exceptions permits some embedding in proprietary software, and the X11 license permits even more embedding. If this doesn't make the X11 license unacceptable, it doesn't make selling exceptions unacceptable".Richard Stallman (2010). [http://www.fsf.org/blogs/rms/selling-exceptions On Selling Exceptions to the GNU GPL]. Free Software Foundation. === Open-source criticism === In 2000 developer and author [[Nikolai Bezroukov]] published an analysis and comprehensive critique of GPL's foundations and [[Richard Stallman|Stallman's]] software development model, called "Labyrinth of Software Freedom".Bezroukov, [http://www.softpanorama.org/Copyright/License_classification/index.shtml Labyrinth of Software Freedom] - "BSD vs GPL and social aspects of free licensing debate" on softpanorama.org by [[Nikolai Bezroukov]] Accessed 23 September 2010.[http://www.eecs.harvard.edu/itm/seminars03-04/OSLicense.ver2.doc The Scope of Open Source Licensing] - [[Harvard University]] by Josh Lerner and Jean Tirole (2002) In 2005, [[open source software]] advocate [[Eric S. Raymond]] questioned the relevance of GPL at that point in time for the FOSS ecosystem, stating: "We don't need the GPL anymore. It's based on the belief that open source software is weak and needs to be protected. Open source would be succeeding faster if the GPL didn't make lots of people nervous about adopting it.".{{cite web|url=http://www.onlamp.com/pub/a/onlamp/2005/06/30/esr_interview.html |title= ESR: "We Don't Need the GPL Anymore" |first=Federico |last=Biancuzzi |date=2005-06-30 |accessdate=2015-02-10 |publisher=onlamp.com |quote=''"We don't need the GPL anymore. It's based on the belief that open source software is weak and needs to be protected. Open source would be succeeding faster if the GPL didn't make lots of people nervous about adopting it."''}} Richard Stallman replied that: "GPL ensure that every user of a program gets the essential freedoms--to run it, to study and change the source code, to redistribute copies, and to publish modified versions... [Raymond] addresses the issue in terms of different goals and values--those of "open source," which do not include defending software users' freedom to share and change software."{{cite web|url=http://www.onlamp.com/pub/a/onlamp/2005/09/22/gpl3.html |title=RMS: The GNU GPL Is Here to Stay |date=2005-09-22 |accessdate=2015-02-12 |publisher=onlamp.com |quote=''"ESR addresses the issue in terms of different goals and values--those of "open source," which do not include defending software users' freedom to share and change software. Perhaps he thinks the GNU GPL is not needed to achieve those goals."''}} In 2007 [[Allison Randal]], who took part in the GPL draft committee, criticized the GPLv3 for being [[License compatibility|incompatible]] with the GPLv2{{cite web|url=http://radar.oreilly.com/2007/04/gplv3-linux-and-gplv2-compatib.html| title=GPLv3, Linux and GPLv2 Compatibility |first=Allison |last=Randal |date=April 13, 2007 |accessdate=2016-01-19| quote=''You might think the FSF would have to be insane to unleash this licensing hell.[...] If the license were purely a cleaned up version of the GPLv2, there would be no incompatibility, the FSF would have no agenda involved in getting projects to update to the new license, and at the same time there would be no reason for projects to object to updating. Smooth sailing.'' |publisher=[[O'Reilly Media]] |work=radar.oreilly.com}} and for missing clarity in the formulation.{{cite web|url=http://radar.oreilly.com/2007/05/gplv3-clarity-and-simplicity.html| title=GPLv3, Clarity and Simplicity |first=Allison |last=Randal |date=May 14, 2007 |accessdate=2016-01-19| quote='' Looking at the near-finished draft, I have to say it’s unlikely that they ever considered simplicity a priority, if they considered it at all. [...] The language choices of an open source license can support that freedom, can empower the users and the developers. The GPLv3 doesn’t.'' |publisher=[[O'Reilly Media]] |work=radar.oreilly.com}} Similarly, [[Whurley]] prophesised in 2007 the downfall of the GPL due to the lack of focus for the developers with GPLv3 which would drive them towards permissive licenses.{{cite web|url=http://talk.bmc.com/blogs/blog-whurley/whurley/the-death-of-a-software-license |archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20081011022019/http://talk.bmc.com/blogs/blog-whurley/whurley/the-death-of-a-software-license|archivedate=2008-10-11|author=[[Whurley]] |date=2007-06-06 |accessdate=2016-06-24 |quote=''Version 3 is going to distance Richard Stallman and the Free Software Foundation from the developers that make the organization so influential to begin.'' |title=The Death Of A Software License}} In 2009 David Chisnall described in an [[InformIT]] article, ''"The Failure of the GPL"'', the problems with the GPL, among them incompatibility and complexity of the license text.{{cite web|url=http://www.informit.com/articles/article.aspx?p=1390172&seqNum=3|title=The Failure of the GPL |first=David |last=Chisnall |date=2009-08-31 |accessdate=2016-01-24|publisher=[[informit.com]]}} In 2014 [[dtrace]] developer and [[Joyent]] [[Chief Technical Officer|CTO]] [[Bryan Cantrill]] called the copyleft GPL a "Corporate Open Source [[Anti-pattern]]" by being "anti-collaborative" and recommended instead [[Permissive license|permissive]] software licenses.{{cite web|url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pm8P4oCIY3g&t=37m05s |title=Corporate Open Source Anti-patterns |first=Bryan |last=Cantrill |date=2014-09-17 |accessdate=2015-12-26 |quote=''Anti-pattern: Anti-collaborative licensing''}} === GPLv3 separates community further === Already in September 2006, in the draft process of the GPLv3, several high-profile developers of the [[Linux kernel]], for instance [[Linus Torvalds]], [[Greg Kroah-Hartman]] and [[Andrew Morton (computer programmer)|Andrew Morton]], warned on a splitting of the FOSS community: ''"the release of GPLv3 portends the [[Balkanisation]] of the entire Open Source Universe upon which we rely."''. Similarly [[Benjamin Mako Hill]] argued in 2006 on the GPLv3 draft, noting that a united, collaborating community is more important than a single license.{{cite web|url=http://archive09.linux.com/feature/51666|title=Notes on the GPLv3 |first=Benjamin Mako |last=Hill |date=January 28, 2006 |accessdate=2016-01-25 |publisher=linux.com |quote=''The GPL is one thing that almost everyone in the free and open source software communities have in common. For that reason, the revision has the potential to highlight disagreements, differences in opinion, differences in business models, and differences in tactics. [...] We would be wise to remember that the potential for the GPL to hinder our ability to work together is far more dangerous than the even the most radical change textual change the FSF might suggest. [...] Above all, we must remember that our community and its goals are more important than any single license -- no matter how widespread.''}} Following the GPLv3 release in 2007, some journalists{{cite web|url=http://www.internetnews.com/dev-news/article.php/3720371/Torvalds+Still+Keen+On+GPLv2.htm |title=Torvalds Still Keen On GPLv2 |quote=''"In some ways, Linux was the project that really made the split clear between what the FSF is pushing which is very different from what open source and Linux has always been about, which is more of a technical superiority instead of a -- this religious belief in freedom," Torvalds told Zemlin. So, the GPL Version 3 reflects the FSF's goals and the GPL Version 2 pretty closely matches what I think a license should do and so right now, Version 2 is where the kernel is."'' |date=2008-01-08 |first=Sean Michael |last=Kerner |publisher=internetnews.com |accessdate=2015-02-12}}{{cite web|url=http://www.datamation.com/open-source/7-reasons-why-free-software-is-losing-influence_2.html |quote=''At the time, the decision seemed sensible in the face of a deadlock. But now, GPLv2 is used for 42.5% of free software, and GPLv3 for less than 6.5%, according to Black Duck Software.'' |title=7 Reasons Why Free Software Is Losing Influence: Page 2 |date=22 November 2011 |first=Bruce |last=Byfield |publisher=[[Datamation]].com |accessdate=23 August 2013}}{{cite web|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20080413091038/http://www.informationweek.com/blog/main/archives/2007/07/linux_creator_c.html |url=http://www.informationweek.com/blog/main/archives/2007/07/linux_creator_c.html |archivedate=2008-04-13 |title=Linux Creator Calls GPLv3 Authors 'Hypocrites' As Open Source Debate Turns Nasty |quote=''[...]the latest sign of a growing schism in the open source community between business-minded developers like Torvalds and free software purists.'' |first=Paul |last=McDougall |date=2007-07-10 |accessdate=2015-02-12 |publisher=informationweek.com}} and [[Toybox]] developer Rob Landley criticized that with the introduction of the GPLv3 the split between the open source and free software community became wider than ever. As the significantly extended GPLv3 is essentially [[License compatibility|incompatible]] with the GPLv2, compatibility between both is only given under the optional ''"or later"'' clause of the GPL, which was not taken for instance by the [[Linux kernel]]. Bruce Byfield noted that before the release of the GPLv3, the GPLv2 was a unifying element between the open-source and the free software community. For the LGPLv3, [[GNU TLS]] maintainer Nikos Mavrogiannopoulos similarly argued, "If we assume that its [the LGPLv3] primary goal is to be used by free software, then it blatantly fails that.",{{cite web|url=http://nmav.gnutls.org/2013/03/the-perils-of-lgplv3.html |title=The perils of LGPLv3 |first=Nikos |last=Mavrogiannopoulos |publisher=gnutls.org |date=2013-03-26 |accessdate=2015-11-18 |quote=''LGPLv3 is the latest version of the GNU Lesser General Public License. It follows the successful LGPLv2.1 license, and was released by Free Software Foundation as a counterpart to its GNU General Public License version 3. The goal of the GNU Lesser General Public Licenses is to provide software that can be used by both proprietary and free software. This goal has been successfully handled so far by LGPLv2.1, and there is a multitude of libraries using that license. Now we have LGPLv3 as the latest, and the question is how successful is LGPLv3 on this goal? In my opinion, very little. If we assume that its primary goal is to be used by free software, then it blatantly fails that.''}} after he re-licensed ''GNU TLS'' from LGPLv3 back to LGPLv2.1 due to [[license compatibility]] issues.[http://www.gnutls.org/abi-tracker/changelog/gnutls/3.1.10/log.html 2013-03-14 Nikos Mavrogiannopoulos (nmav@gnutls.org) * COPYING.LESSER, README: gnutls 3.1.10 is LGPLv2.1]{{ cite web | url = http://lwn.net/Articles/529558/ | title = gnutls is moving | date = 2012-12-18 | author = Nikos Mavrogiannopoulos | accessdate = 2012-12-11 }} [[Lawrence Rosen (attorney)|Lawrence Rosen]], attorney and computer specialist, praised in 2007 how the community using the Apache license were now able to work together with the GPL community in a compatible manner, as the problems of GPLv2 compatibility with Apache licensed software were resolved with the GPLv3. He said, ''"I predict that one of the biggest success stories of GPLv3 will be the realization that the entire universe of free and open source software can thus be combined into comprehensive open source solutions for customers worldwide."''{{cite web|url=http://www.rosenlaw.com/GPLv3-Comments.htm |title=Comments on GPLv3 |publisher=Rosenlaw.com |date= |accessdate=22 August 2014 |year=2007 |first=Lawrence |last=Rosen}} In July 2013 [[Flask (web framework)|Flask]] developer Armin Ronacher draw a less optimistic resume on the GPL compatibility in the FOSS ecosystem when he concluded:''"When the GPL is involved the complexities of licensing becomes a non fun version of a riddle."'', also noting that the ASL 2.0 GPLv2 conflict still has impact on the ecosystem.{{cite web|url=http://lucumr.pocoo.org/2013/7/23/licensing/ |title=Licensing in a Post Copyright World |date=2013-07-23 |accessdate=2015-11-18|first=Armin |last=Ronacher |publisher=lucumr.pocoo.org |quote=''The License Compatibility Clusterfuck - When the GPL is involved the complexities of licensing becomes a non fun version of a riddle. So many things to consider and so many interactions to consider. And that GPL incompatibilities are still an issue that actively effects people is something many appear to forget. For instance one would think that the incompatibility of the GPLv2 with the Apache Software License 2.0 should be a thing of the past now that everything upgrades to GPLv3, but it turns out that enough people are either stuck with GPLv2 only or do not agree with the GPLv3 that some Apache Software licensed projects are required to migrate. For instance Twitter's Bootstrap is currently migrating from ASL2.0 to MIT precisely because some people still need GPLv2 compatibility. Among those projects that were affected were Drupal, WordPress, Joomla, the MoinMoin Wiki and others. And even that case shows that people don't care that much about licenses any more as Joomla 3 just bundled bootstrap even though they were not licenses in a compatible way (GPLv2 vs ASL 2.0). The other traditional case of things not being GPL compatible is the OpenSSL project which has a license that does not go well with the GPL. That license is also still incompatible with the GPLv3. The whole ordeal is particularly interesting as some not so nice parties have started doing license trolling through GPL licenses.''}}[http://lucumr.pocoo.org/2009/2/12/are-you-sure-you-want-to-use-gpl/ Are you sure you want to use the GPL?] by Armin Ronacher (2009) == See also == {{Portal|Free software}} * [[Anti-copyright]] * [[Dual-licensing]] * [[European Union Public Licence]] (EUPL) * [[GPL font exception]] * [[List of software licenses]] * [[Permissive and copyleft licenses]] == References == {{reflist|30em}} == External links == {{Wikibooks|Free software Licensing}} * [https://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html GNU General Public License] (version 3) * [https://gnu.org/licenses/old-licenses/gpl-2.0.txt GNU General Public License v2.0]—This version is [[deprecation|deprecated]] by the FSF but is still used by many software projects, including [[Linux kernel]] and GNU packages * [https://gnu.org/licenses/old-licenses/gpl-1.0.txt GNU General Public License v1.0]—This version is [[deprecation|deprecated]] by the FSF. * [http://www.free-soft.org/gpl_history/emacs_gpl.html The Emacs General Public License], a February 1988 version, a direct predecessor of the GNU GPL * [http://www.free-soft.org/gpl_history/ History of the GPL] by Li-Cheng Tai, July 4, 2001 * [https://softwarefreedom.org/resources/2008/compliance-guide.html A Practical Guide to GPL Compliance] (Covers GPLv2 and v3) — from the [[Software Freedom Law Center]] * [http://sapnakumar.org/Publications_files/EnfGPL.pdf A paper on enforcing the GPL] * [https://gnu.org/licenses/gpl-faq.html Frequently Asked Questions about the GPL] * [http://www.dwheeler.com/blog/2006/09/01/#gpl-bsd GPL, BSD, and NetBSD – why the GPL rocketed Linux to success] by [[David A. Wheeler]] * [http://www.rattlesnake.com/software-law/GNU-GPL-and-Commentaries.html GNU General Public License and Commentaries], edited by [[Robert Chassell]] * [https://wiki.fsfe.org/Transcripts#Licences_and_the_GNU_GPL List of presentation transcripts about the GPL and free software licenses] by the FSFE * [http://www.dwheeler.com/essays/gpl-compatible.html Make Your Open Source Software GPL-Compatible. Or Else.] by [[David A. Wheeler]] — Why a GPL-compatible license is important to the health of a project (7 April 2004) * [http://www.softpanorama.org/Copyright/License_classification/index.shtml The Labyrinth of Software Freedom] BSD vs GPL and social aspects of free licensing debate, by [[Nikolai Bezroukov]] {{GNU}} {{FOSS}} [[Category:Computer law]] [[Category:Free and open-source software licenses]] [[Category:GNU Project]] [[Category:Copyleft]] {{Redirect|Freshmeat||Fresh Meat (disambiguation){{!}}Fresh Meat}} {{Infobox website | logo = Freecode logo.png | screenshot = | caption = | url = {{URL|http://freecode.com/}} | commercial = Yes | type = Software | registration = Optional | language = [[English language|English]] only | owner = BIZX, LLC | author = Patrick Lenz (scoop) | revenue = | name = Freecode | favicon = | launch date = | current status = Unmaintained archive }} '''Freecode''', formerly '''Freshmeat''', is a [[website]] owned by BIZX, Inc. It helped people find [[software]] and keep track of the latest releases and updates. Among other things, the site also hosted user reviews and discussions. A majority of the software covered is [[open source]] for [[Unix-like]] systems, although Freecode also covered releases of [[closed-source]], commercial and [[cross-platform]] software on {{nowrap|[[Mac OS X]]}} and handhelds. Freecode was notable for its age, having started in 1997 as the first web-based aggregator of software releases.{{citation needed|date=September 2014}} The site was renamed from "Freshmeat" to "Freecode" on October 29, 2011, and in September 2012, [[Dice.com|Dice Holdings]] acquired the website from [[Geeknet]]. Purportedly as a result of low traffic levels, the site is no longer being updated as of June 18, 2014. Because many of the linked software projects are otherwise difficult to find, the site contents have been kept online. After [[Open Source Initiative]] co-founder [[Eric S. Raymond]] called for a replacement, [[freshcode.club]] was created and is accepting submissions. However, [[Open Hub]] also lists open source projects and already offers more information on projects than Freecode. {{citation needed|date=January 2016}} On January 27, Freecode was sold, along with SourceForge and Slashdot, to current owners BIZX, Inc.{{Cite web|url=http://www.sdbj.com/news/2016/jan/28/slashdot-media-acquired-bizx-undisclosed-price/|title=Slashdot Media Acquired by BIZX for Undisclosed Price {{!}} San Diego Business Journal|website=www.sdbj.com|access-date=2016-06-08}} The site remains in its archived state, but some discussion is on going to restore it.{{Cite web|url=https://www.reddit.com/r/sysadmin/comments/4n3e1s/the_state_of_sourceforge_since_its_acquisition_in/d415s5n|title=The State of SourceForge Since Its Acquisition in January • /r/sysadmin|website=reddit|access-date=2016-06-08}} == Features == {{Anchor|Submissions}} {{Unreferenced section|date=September 2014}} Prior to Freecode's archival, programmers registered their projects with the site, and submitted information about updates. Software was categorized by field of application, [[software license|license]], development status, environment, intended audience, type of use, supported [[operating system]]s, [[programming languages]] used, and available [[natural languages]]. Users could browse for software and [[download]]s, and were able to rate or comment on the software. An [[Network News Transfer Protocol|NNTP]] server allowed [[Usenet]]-like access; complex search queries could be saved, with new or updated entries matching the query sent as daily e-mail notifications. Freecode also offered a news ticker stream, a daily newsletter, articles on [[Unix]] software-related topics and an [[IRC]] channel. The entire database of software releases was freely available as a download. == See also == *[[SourceForge]] *[[List of free software project directories]] ==References== {{Reflist|refs= {{cite web|title=About Freecode |url=http://freecode.com/about |date=2011-10-31 |accessdate=2014-09-01 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20111031160805/http://freecode.com/about |archivedate=October 31, 2011 }} {{cite web|title=What's in a name? |url=http://freecode.com/articles/whats-in-a-name |date=2011-10-29 |accessdate=2014-09-01 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20111031123247/http://freecode.com/articles/whats-in-a-name |archivedate=October 31, 2011 }} {{cite web |title=freshmeat.net, 1997-2014 |url=http://jeffcovey.net/2014/06/19/freshmeat-net-1997-2014/ |date=2014-06-19 |accessdate=2014-09-01 }} {{cite web |title=Dice Holdings buys Geeknet websites for $20M |url=http://www.businessweek.com/ap/2012-09-18/dice-holdings-buys-geeknet-websites-for-20m |date=2012-09-18| accessdate=2014-09-01 }} {{cite web |title=Slashdot, SourceForge, FreeCode sold to jobs site company |url=http://arstechnica.com/business/2012/09/slashdot-sourceforge-freecode-sold-to-jobs-site-company/ |date=2012-09-18 |accessdate=2014-09-01 }} {{cite web|title=About Freecode |url=http://freecode.com/about |date=2014-06-19 |accessdate=2014-09-01 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20140619122043/http://freecode.com/about |archivedate=June 19, 2014 }} {{cite web |title=Replacing freecode: a proposal |url=http://esr.ibiblio.org/?p=5948 |date=2014-06-21 |accessdate=2014-09-01 }} {{cite web |title=Freshcode.club wants to replace Freecode |url=http://news.sixgun.org/2014/08/04/freshcode-club/ |date=2014-08-04 |accessdate=2014-09-01 }} }} ==External links== * {{Official website|http://freecode.com/}} * [http://freshcode.club freshcode.club] [[Category:Geeknet]] [[Category:Defunct websites]] {{Infobox company | name = Black Duck Software, Inc. | logo = [[File:Black Duck Software logo.png|250px|Black Duck Software]] | type = Privately held | key_people = Lou Shipley, President & CEO
Stephen Gregorio, CFO
Bill Ledingham, CTO
Bob Canaway, CMO
Adam Clay, VP of Worldwide Sales | industry = Open Source Security Software | products = Black Duck Hub
Black Duck Protex
Black Duck Code Center | homepage = [http://www.blackducksoftware.com/ www.BlackDuckSoftware.com] | foundation = [[Massachusetts]], [[United States|USA]] (2002) | location_city = [[Burlington, MA]] }} '''Black Duck Software''' is a privately held software company headquartered in Burlington, Massachusetts that specializes in assisting companies to secure and manage their use of [[Open-source software|open source software (OSS)]]. Black Duck has partnerships with a variety of open source organizations including [https://www.redhat.com/en/about/press-releases/red-hat-and-black-duck-collaborate-deliver-secure-and-trusted-linux-containers-enterprise Red Hat], the [http://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20050509005035/en/Black-Duck-Software-Joins-Open-Source-Software Open Source Software Institute (OSSI)], and [http://www.internetnews.com/ent-news/article.php/3524206 SourceForge]. Headquartered in Burlington, MA, Black Duck has offices in San Jose, CA; Frankfurt, Germany; Reading, United Kingdom; Tokyo, Japan; and Seoul, South Korea. == Products & Services == Black Duck markets products and services as solutions that allow organizations to analyze the composition of their software, search for reusable code, manage open source and third-party approval, honor legal obligations, and monitor related security vulnerabilities. The company promotes its products and services as follows: ; Black Duck Hub : automatically scans applications and [http://focusoncontainers.com/black-duck-adds-container-scanning-for-security/ Linux Containers] to discover open source components and applications used to build them, maps known vulnerabilities, manages remediation activities, and monitors and alerts users when new threats are reported. ; Black Duck Protex : integrates with development tools to automatically scan, identify, and inventory open source software. ; Black Duck Code Center : automates the processes of finding and selecting open source software, requesting and receiving approval for code usage, and accessing licenses, community activities and vulnerability information for open source components. ; Black Duck On-Demand : marketed for internal audits and M&A transactions, is a service that identifies open source components, licenses, IP obligations, and other code risks. ; Black Duck Open Hub : (formerly Ohloh.net) an online community and public directory of free and open source software (FOSS), offering analytics and search services for discovering, evaluating, tracking, and comparing open source code and projects. ==History== Black Duck Software was founded in 2002 by Douglas Levin in Waltham, Massachusetts. The company moved its corporate headquarters to Burlington, MA in 2011.{{Cite web|url=http://www.bizjournals.com/boston/real_estate/2011/11/black-duck-ditching-waltham-for-new-hq.html|title=Boston Business Journal|last=|first=|date=2011-11-08|website=bizjournal|publisher=|access-date=2016-04-05}} Lou Shipley joined the company in 2013 as President and CEO.{{Cite web|url=https://www.bostonglobe.com/business/2014/01/05/seven-things-you-should-know-about-black-duck-chief-executive-lou-shipley/DNa5bEPh6STUBhAHMvMcdL/story.html|title=Seven things you should know about Black Duck chief executive Lou Shipley - The Boston Globe|website=BostonGlobe.com|access-date=2016-04-05}} In a 2016 press release, Black Duck reported the company had 230 employees.{{Cite news|url=http://www.reuters.com/article/ma-black-duck-software-idUSnBw275745a+100+BSW20160127|title=Black Duck’s 2015 Growth Spurs Major Expansion at Burlington Headquarters|date=2016-01-27|newspaper=Reuters|access-date=2016-04-05}} In 2004, Black Duck completed its first round of venture capital funding, acquiring investments from Flagship Ventures and General Catalyst Partners totaling $5 million USD.{{Cite web|url=http://www.flagshipventures.com/about/news/black-duck-software-secures-5-million-series-financing|title=Black Duck Software Secures $5 Million in Series A Financing {{!}} Flagship Ventures|website=www.flagshipventures.com|access-date=2016-04-05}} In 2005, a second round of investments came in equaling $12 million USD from a combination of sources: Fidelity Ventures of Boston, Intel Capital, SAP Ventures, and Red Hat.{{Cite web|url=http://www.bizjournals.com/boston/stories/2005/06/06/daily7.html|title=Black Duck Software raises $12M in 2nd VC round - Boston Business Journal|website=Boston Business Journal|access-date=2016-04-05}} In February 2007, Black Duck acquired a round of investments totaling $12 million USD from Focus Ventures and past investors.{{Cite web|url=http://www.bizjournals.com/sanjose/stories/2007/02/12/daily39.html|title=Valley firms join $12M Black Duck round - Silicon Valley Business Journal|website=Silicon Valley Business Journal|access-date=2016-04-05}} In 2009, Black Duck announcing it had received $9.5 million in new financing, including Gold Hill Capital and existing investors.{{Cite web|url=http://www.bizjournals.com/boston/blog/mass-high-tech/2009/02/open-source-firm-black-duck-hatches.html|title=Open source firm Black Duck hatches $9.5M funding - Boston Business Journal|website=Boston Business Journal|access-date=2016-04-05}} In 2011, the company raised an additional $12 million from various investors.{{Cite web|url=http://www.bizjournals.com/boston/news/2011/10/12/black-duck-raises-12m-in-vc.html|title=After coasting for 3 years, Black Duck Software raises $12M - Boston Business Journal|website=Boston Business Journal|access-date=2016-04-05}} In July 2014, Black Duck received a $20 million investment from a combination of General Catalyst Partners and other past investors.{{Cite web|url=http://www.bizjournals.com/boston/blog/startups/2014/09/black-duck-software-raises-20m-led-by-general.html|title=Black Duck Software raises $20M, led by General Catalyst - Boston Business Journal|website=Boston Business Journal|access-date=2016-04-05}} ==References== {{Reflist}} [[Category:Software companies established in 2002]] [[Category:2002 establishments in Massachusetts]] [[Category:software companies based in Massachusetts]] [[Category:companies based in Massachusetts]] [[Category:computer security software companies]] [[Category:computer security software]] [[Category:privately held companies based in Massachusetts]] [[Category:business software companies]] GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 3, 29 June 2007 Copyright © 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc. Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed. Preamble The GNU General Public License is a free, copyleft license for software and other kinds of works. The licenses for most software and other practical works are designed to take away your freedom to share and change the works. By contrast, the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change all versions of a program--to make sure it remains free software for all its users. We, the Free Software Foundation, use the GNU General Public License for most of our software; it applies also to any other work released this way by its authors. You can apply it to your programs, too. When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not price. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for them if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it if you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs, and that you know you can do these things. To protect your rights, we need to prevent others from denying you these rights or asking you to surrender the rights. Therefore, you have certain responsibilities if you distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it: responsibilities to respect the freedom of others. For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether gratis or for a fee, you must pass on to the recipients the same freedoms that you received. You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the source code. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights. Developers that use the GNU GPL protect your rights with two steps: (1) assert copyright on the software, and (2) offer you this License giving you legal permission to copy, distribute and/or modify it. For the developers' and authors' protection, the GPL clearly explains that there is no warranty for this free software. For both users' and authors' sake, the GPL requires that modified versions be marked as changed, so that their problems will not be attributed erroneously to authors of previous versions. Some devices are designed to deny users access to install or run modified versions of the software inside them, although the manufacturer can do so. This is fundamentally incompatible with the aim of protecting users' freedom to change the software. The systematic pattern of such abuse occurs in the area of products for individuals to use, which is precisely where it is most unacceptable. Therefore, we have designed this version of the GPL to prohibit the practice for those products. If such problems arise substantially in other domains, we stand ready to extend this provision to those domains in future versions of the GPL, as needed to protect the freedom of users. Finally, every program is threatened constantly by software patents. States should not allow patents to restrict development and use of software on general-purpose computers, but in those that do, we wish to avoid the special danger that patents applied to a free program could make it effectively proprietary. To prevent this, the GPL assures that patents cannot be used to render the program non-free. The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and modification follow. TERMS AND CONDITIONS 0. Definitions. “This License” refers to version 3 of the GNU General Public License. “Copyright” also means copyright-like laws that apply to other kinds of works, such as semiconductor masks. “The Program” refers to any copyrightable work licensed under this License. Each licensee is addressed as “you”. “Licensees” and “recipients” may be individuals or organizations. To “modify” a work means to copy from or adapt all or part of the work in a fashion requiring copyright permission, other than the making of an exact copy. The resulting work is called a “modified version” of the earlier work or a work “based on” the earlier work. A “covered work” means either the unmodified Program or a work based on the Program. To “propagate” a work means to do anything with it that, without permission, would make you directly or secondarily liable for infringement under applicable copyright law, except executing it on a computer or modifying a private copy. Propagation includes copying, distribution (with or without modification), making available to the public, and in some countries other activities as well. To “convey” a work means any kind of propagation that enables other parties to make or receive copies. Mere interaction with a user through a computer network, with no transfer of a copy, is not conveying. An interactive user interface displays “Appropriate Legal Notices” to the extent that it includes a convenient and prominently visible feature that (1) displays an appropriate copyright notice, and (2) tells the user that there is no warranty for the work (except to the extent that warranties are provided), that licensees may convey the work under this License, and how to view a copy of this License. If the interface presents a list of user commands or options, such as a menu, a prominent item in the list meets this criterion. 1. Source Code. The “source code” for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. “Object code” means any non-source form of a work. A “Standard Interface” means an interface that either is an official standard defined by a recognized standards body, or, in the case of interfaces specified for a particular programming language, one that is widely used among developers working in that language. The “System Libraries” of an executable work include anything, other than the work as a whole, that (a) is included in the normal form of packaging a Major Component, but which is not part of that Major Component, and (b) serves only to enable use of the work with that Major Component, or to implement a Standard Interface for which an implementation is available to the public in source code form. A “Major Component”, in this context, means a major essential component (kernel, window system, and so on) of the specific operating system (if any) on which the executable work runs, or a compiler used to produce the work, or an object code interpreter used to run it. The “Corresponding Source” for a work in object code form means all the source code needed to generate, install, and (for an executable work) run the object code and to modify the work, including scripts to control those activities. However, it does not include the work's System Libraries, or general-purpose tools or generally available free programs which are used unmodified in performing those activities but which are not part of the work. For example, Corresponding Source includes interface definition files associated with source files for the work, and the source code for shared libraries and dynamically linked subprograms that the work is specifically designed to require, such as by intimate data communication or control flow between those subprograms and other parts of the work. The Corresponding Source need not include anything that users can regenerate automatically from other parts of the Corresponding Source. The Corresponding Source for a work in source code form is that same work. 2. Basic Permissions. All rights granted under this License are granted for the term of copyright on the Program, and are irrevocable provided the stated conditions are met. This License explicitly affirms your unlimited permission to run the unmodified Program. The output from running a covered work is covered by this License only if the output, given its content, constitutes a covered work. This License acknowledges your rights of fair use or other equivalent, as provided by copyright law. You may make, run and propagate covered works that you do not convey, without conditions so long as your license otherwise remains in force. You may convey covered works to others for the sole purpose of having them make modifications exclusively for you, or provide you with facilities for running those works, provided that you comply with the terms of this License in conveying all material for which you do not control copyright. Those thus making or running the covered works for you must do so exclusively on your behalf, under your direction and control, on terms that prohibit them from making any copies of your copyrighted material outside their relationship with you. Conveying under any other circumstances is permitted solely under the conditions stated below. Sublicensing is not allowed; section 10 makes it unnecessary. 3. Protecting Users' Legal Rights From Anti-Circumvention Law. No covered work shall be deemed part of an effective technological measure under any applicable law fulfilling obligations under article 11 of the WIPO copyright treaty adopted on 20 December 1996, or similar laws prohibiting or restricting circumvention of such measures. When you convey a covered work, you waive any legal power to forbid circumvention of technological measures to the extent such circumvention is effected by exercising rights under this License with respect to the covered work, and you disclaim any intention to limit operation or modification of the work as a means of enforcing, against the work's users, your or third parties' legal rights to forbid circumvention of technological measures. 4. Conveying Verbatim Copies. You may convey verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice; keep intact all notices stating that this License and any non-permissive terms added in accord with section 7 apply to the code; keep intact all notices of the absence of any warranty; and give all recipients a copy of this License along with the Program. You may charge any price or no price for each copy that you convey, and you may offer support or warranty protection for a fee. 5. Conveying Modified Source Versions. You may convey a work based on the Program, or the modifications to produce it from the Program, in the form of source code under the terms of section 4, provided that you also meet all of these conditions: a) The work must carry prominent notices stating that you modified it, and giving a relevant date. b) The work must carry prominent notices stating that it is released under this License and any conditions added under section 7. This requirement modifies the requirement in section 4 to “keep intact all notices”. c) You must license the entire work, as a whole, under this License to anyone who comes into possession of a copy. This License will therefore apply, along with any applicable section 7 additional terms, to the whole of the work, and all its parts, regardless of how they are packaged. This License gives no permission to license the work in any other way, but it does not invalidate such permission if you have separately received it. d) If the work has interactive user interfaces, each must display Appropriate Legal Notices; however, if the Program has interactive interfaces that do not display Appropriate Legal Notices, your work need not make them do so. A compilation of a covered work with other separate and independent works, which are not by their nature extensions of the covered work, and which are not combined with it such as to form a larger program, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an “aggregate” if the compilation and its resulting copyright are not used to limit the access or legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit. Inclusion of a covered work in an aggregate does not cause this License to apply to the other parts of the aggregate. 6. Conveying Non-Source Forms. You may convey a covered work in object code form under the terms of sections 4 and 5, provided that you also convey the machine-readable Corresponding Source under the terms of this License, in one of these ways: a) Convey the object code in, or embodied in, a physical product (including a physical distribution medium), accompanied by the Corresponding Source fixed on a durable physical medium customarily used for software interchange. b) Convey the object code in, or embodied in, a physical product (including a physical distribution medium), accompanied by a written offer, valid for at least three years and valid for as long as you offer spare parts or customer support for that product model, to give anyone who possesses the object code either (1) a copy of the Corresponding Source for all the software in the product that is covered by this License, on a durable physical medium customarily used for software interchange, for a price no more than your reasonable cost of physically performing this conveying of source, or (2) access to copy the Corresponding Source from a network server at no charge. c) Convey individual copies of the object code with a copy of the written offer to provide the Corresponding Source. This alternative is allowed only occasionally and noncommercially, and only if you received the object code with such an offer, in accord with subsection 6b. d) Convey the object code by offering access from a designated place (gratis or for a charge), and offer equivalent access to the Corresponding Source in the same way through the same place at no further charge. You need not require recipients to copy the Corresponding Source along with the object code. If the place to copy the object code is a network server, the Corresponding Source may be on a different server (operated by you or a third party) that supports equivalent copying facilities, provided you maintain clear directions next to the object code saying where to find the Corresponding Source. Regardless of what server hosts the Corresponding Source, you remain obligated to ensure that it is available for as long as needed to satisfy these requirements. e) Convey the object code using peer-to-peer transmission, provided you inform other peers where the object code and Corresponding Source of the work are being offered to the general public at no charge under subsection 6d. A separable portion of the object code, whose source code is excluded from the Corresponding Source as a System Library, need not be included in conveying the object code work. A “User Product” is either (1) a “consumer product”, which means any tangible personal property which is normally used for personal, family, or household purposes, or (2) anything designed or sold for incorporation into a dwelling. In determining whether a product is a consumer product, doubtful cases shall be resolved in favor of coverage. For a particular product received by a particular user, “normally used” refers to a typical or common use of that class of product, regardless of the status of the particular user or of the way in which the particular user actually uses, or expects or is expected to use, the product. A product is a consumer product regardless of whether the product has substantial commercial, industrial or non-consumer uses, unless such uses represent the only significant mode of use of the product. “Installation Information” for a User Product means any methods, procedures, authorization keys, or other information required to install and execute modified versions of a covered work in that User Product from a modified version of its Corresponding Source. The information must suffice to ensure that the continued functioning of the modified object code is in no case prevented or interfered with solely because modification has been made. If you convey an object code work under this section in, or with, or specifically for use in, a User Product, and the conveying occurs as part of a transaction in which the right of possession and use of the User Product is transferred to the recipient in perpetuity or for a fixed term (regardless of how the transaction is characterized), the Corresponding Source conveyed under this section must be accompanied by the Installation Information. But this requirement does not apply if neither you nor any third party retains the ability to install modified object code on the User Product (for example, the work has been installed in ROM). The requirement to provide Installation Information does not include a requirement to continue to provide support service, warranty, or updates for a work that has been modified or installed by the recipient, or for the User Product in which it has been modified or installed. Access to a network may be denied when the modification itself materially and adversely affects the operation of the network or violates the rules and protocols for communication across the network. Corresponding Source conveyed, and Installation Information provided, in accord with this section must be in a format that is publicly documented (and with an implementation available to the public in source code form), and must require no special password or key for unpacking, reading or copying. 7. Additional Terms. “Additional permissions” are terms that supplement the terms of this License by making exceptions from one or more of its conditions. Additional permissions that are applicable to the entire Program shall be treated as though they were included in this License, to the extent that they are valid under applicable law. If additional permissions apply only to part of the Program, that part may be used separately under those permissions, but the entire Program remains governed by this License without regard to the additional permissions. When you convey a copy of a covered work, you may at your option remove any additional permissions from that copy, or from any part of it. (Additional permissions may be written to require their own removal in certain cases when you modify the work.) You may place additional permissions on material, added by you to a covered work, for which you have or can give appropriate copyright permission. Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, for material you add to a covered work, you may (if authorized by the copyright holders of that material) supplement the terms of this License with terms: a) Disclaiming warranty or limiting liability differently from the terms of sections 15 and 16 of this License; or b) Requiring preservation of specified reasonable legal notices or author attributions in that material or in the Appropriate Legal Notices displayed by works containing it; or c) Prohibiting misrepresentation of the origin of that material, or requiring that modified versions of such material be marked in reasonable ways as different from the original version; or d) Limiting the use for publicity purposes of names of licensors or authors of the material; or e) Declining to grant rights under trademark law for use of some trade names, trademarks, or service marks; or f) Requiring indemnification of licensors and authors of that material by anyone who conveys the material (or modified versions of it) with contractual assumptions of liability to the recipient, for any liability that these contractual assumptions directly impose on those licensors and authors. All other non-permissive additional terms are considered “further restrictions” within the meaning of section 10. If the Program as you received it, or any part of it, contains a notice stating that it is governed by this License along with a term that is a further restriction, you may remove that term. If a license document contains a further restriction but permits relicensing or conveying under this License, you may add to a covered work material governed by the terms of that license document, provided that the further restriction does not survive such relicensing or conveying. If you add terms to a covered work in accord with this section, you must place, in the relevant source files, a statement of the additional terms that apply to those files, or a notice indicating where to find the applicable terms. Additional terms, permissive or non-permissive, may be stated in the form of a separately written license, or stated as exceptions; the above requirements apply either way. 8. Termination. You may not propagate or modify a covered work except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt otherwise to propagate or modify it is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License (including any patent licenses granted under the third paragraph of section 11). However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a) provisionally, unless and until the copyright holder explicitly and finally terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the copyright holder fails to notify you of the violation by some reasonable means prior to 60 days after the cessation. Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from that copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days after your receipt of the notice. Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate the licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from you under this License. If your rights have been terminated and not permanently reinstated, you do not qualify to receive new licenses for the same material under section 10. 9. Acceptance Not Required for Having Copies. You are not required to accept this License in order to receive or run a copy of the Program. Ancillary propagation of a covered work occurring solely as a consequence of using peer-to-peer transmission to receive a copy likewise does not require acceptance. However, nothing other than this License grants you permission to propagate or modify any covered work. These actions infringe copyright if you do not accept this License. Therefore, by modifying or propagating a covered work, you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so. 10. Automatic Licensing of Downstream Recipients. Each time you convey a covered work, the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensors, to run, modify and propagate that work, subject to this License. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties with this License. An “entity transaction” is a transaction transferring control of an organization, or substantially all assets of one, or subdividing an organization, or merging organizations. If propagation of a covered work results from an entity transaction, each party to that transaction who receives a copy of the work also receives whatever licenses to the work the party's predecessor in interest had or could give under the previous paragraph, plus a right to possession of the Corresponding Source of the work from the predecessor in interest, if the predecessor has it or can get it with reasonable efforts. You may not impose any further restrictions on the exercise of the rights granted or affirmed under this License. For example, you may not impose a license fee, royalty, or other charge for exercise of rights granted under this License, and you may not initiate litigation (including a cross-claim or counterclaim in a lawsuit) alleging that any patent claim is infringed by making, using, selling, offering for sale, or importing the Program or any portion of it. 11. Patents. A “contributor” is a copyright holder who authorizes use under this License of the Program or a work on which the Program is based. The work thus licensed is called the contributor's “contributor version”. A contributor's “essential patent claims” are all patent claims owned or controlled by the contributor, whether already acquired or hereafter acquired, that would be infringed by some manner, permitted by this License, of making, using, or selling its contributor version, but do not include claims that would be infringed only as a consequence of further modification of the contributor version. For purposes of this definition, “control” includes the right to grant patent sublicenses in a manner consistent with the requirements of this License. Each contributor grants you a non-exclusive, worldwide, royalty-free patent license under the contributor's essential patent claims, to make, use, sell, offer for sale, import and otherwise run, modify and propagate the contents of its contributor version. In the following three paragraphs, a “patent license” is any express agreement or commitment, however denominated, not to enforce a patent (such as an express permission to practice a patent or covenant not to sue for patent infringement). To “grant” such a patent license to a party means to make such an agreement or commitment not to enforce a patent against the party. If you convey a covered work, knowingly relying on a patent license, and the Corresponding Source of the work is not available for anyone to copy, free of charge and under the terms of this License, through a publicly available network server or other readily accessible means, then you must either (1) cause the Corresponding Source to be so available, or (2) arrange to deprive yourself of the benefit of the patent license for this particular work, or (3) arrange, in a manner consistent with the requirements of this License, to extend the patent license to downstream recipients. “Knowingly relying” means you have actual knowledge that, but for the patent license, your conveying the covered work in a country, or your recipient's use of the covered work in a country, would infringe one or more identifiable patents in that country that you have reason to believe are valid. If, pursuant to or in connection with a single transaction or arrangement, you convey, or propagate by procuring conveyance of, a covered work, and grant a patent license to some of the parties receiving the covered work authorizing them to use, propagate, modify or convey a specific copy of the covered work, then the patent license you grant is automatically extended to all recipients of the covered work and works based on it. A patent license is “discriminatory” if it does not include within the scope of its coverage, prohibits the exercise of, or is conditioned on the non-exercise of one or more of the rights that are specifically granted under this License. You may not convey a covered work if you are a party to an arrangement with a third party that is in the business of distributing software, under which you make payment to the third party based on the extent of your activity of conveying the work, and under which the third party grants, to any of the parties who would receive the covered work from you, a discriminatory patent license (a) in connection with copies of the covered work conveyed by you (or copies made from those copies), or (b) primarily for and in connection with specific products or compilations that contain the covered work, unless you entered into that arrangement, or that patent license was granted, prior to 28 March 2007. Nothing in this License shall be construed as excluding or limiting any implied license or other defenses to infringement that may otherwise be available to you under applicable patent law. 12. No Surrender of Others' Freedom. If conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you cannot convey a covered work so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you may not convey it at all. For example, if you agree to terms that obligate you to collect a royalty for further conveying from those to whom you convey the Program, the only way you could satisfy both those terms and this License would be to refrain entirely from conveying the Program. 13. Use with the GNU Affero General Public License. Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, you have permission to link or combine any covered work with a work licensed under version 3 of the GNU Affero General Public License into a single combined work, and to convey the resulting work. The terms of this License will continue to apply to the part which is the covered work, but the special requirements of the GNU Affero General Public License, section 13, concerning interaction through a network will apply to the combination as such. 14. Revised Versions of this License. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the GNU General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program specifies that a certain numbered version of the GNU General Public License “or any later version” applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that numbered version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of the GNU General Public License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation. If the Program specifies that a proxy can decide which future versions of the GNU General Public License can be used, that proxy's public statement of acceptance of a version permanently authorizes you to choose that version for the Program. Later license versions may give you additional or different permissions. However, no additional obligations are imposed on any author or copyright holder as a result of your choosing to follow a later version. 15. Disclaimer of Warranty. THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM “AS IS” WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR OR CORRECTION. 16. Limitation of Liability. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MODIFIES AND/OR CONVEYS THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. 17. Interpretation of Sections 15 and 16. If the disclaimer of warranty and limitation of liability provided above cannot be given local legal effect according to their terms, reviewing courts shall apply local law that most closely approximates an absolute waiver of all civil liability in connection with the Program, unless a warranty or assumption of liability accompanies a copy of the Program in return for a fee. END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms. To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively state the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least the “copyright” line and a pointer to where the full notice is found. Copyright (C) This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later version. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. If not, see . Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail. If the program does terminal interaction, make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode: Copyright (C) This program comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'. This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions; type `show c' for details. The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. Of course, your program's commands might be different; for a GUI interface, you would use an “about box”. You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or school, if any, to sign a “copyright disclaimer” for the program, if necessary. For more information on this, and how to apply and follow the GNU GPL, see . The GNU General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. If your program is a subroutine library, you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. But first, please read . GNU LESSER GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 2.1, February 1999 Copyright (C) 1991, 1999 Free Software Foundation, Inc. 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed. [This is the first released version of the Lesser GPL. It also counts as the successor of the GNU Library Public License, version 2, hence the version number 2.1.] Preamble The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. By contrast, the GNU General Public Licenses are intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. This license, the Lesser General Public License, applies to some specially designated software packages--typically libraries--of the Free Software Foundation and other authors who decide to use it. You can use it too, but we suggest you first think carefully about whether this license or the ordinary General Public License is the better strategy to use in any particular case, based on the explanations below. When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom of use, not price. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish); that you receive source code or can get it if you want it; that you can change the software and use pieces of it in new free programs; and that you are informed that you can do these things. To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid distributors to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender these rights. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the library or if you modify it. For example, if you distribute copies of the library, whether gratis or for a fee, you must give the recipients all the rights that we gave you. You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the source code. If you link other code with the library, you must provide complete object files to the recipients, so that they can relink them with the library after making changes to the library and recompiling it. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights. We protect your rights with a two-step method: (1) we copyright the library, and (2) we offer you this license, which gives you legal permission to copy, distribute and/or modify the library. To protect each distributor, we want to make it very clear that there is no warranty for the free library. Also, if the library is modified by someone else and passed on, the recipients should know that what they have is not the original version, so that the original author's reputation will not be affected by problems that might be introduced by others. Finally, software patents pose a constant threat to the existence of any free program. We wish to make sure that a company cannot effectively restrict the users of a free program by obtaining a restrictive license from a patent holder. Therefore, we insist that any patent license obtained for a version of the library must be consistent with the full freedom of use specified in this license. Most GNU software, including some libraries, is covered by the ordinary GNU General Public License. This license, the GNU Lesser General Public License, applies to certain designated libraries, and is quite different from the ordinary General Public License. We use this license for certain libraries in order to permit linking those libraries into non-free programs. When a program is linked with a library, whether statically or using a shared library, the combination of the two is legally speaking a combined work, a derivative of the original library. The ordinary General Public License therefore permits such linking only if the entire combination fits its criteria of freedom. The Lesser General Public License permits more lax criteria for linking other code with the library. We call this license the "Lesser" General Public License because it does Less to protect the user's freedom than the ordinary General Public License. It also provides other free software developers Less of an advantage over competing non-free programs. These disadvantages are the reason we use the ordinary General Public License for many libraries. However, the Lesser license provides advantages in certain special circumstances. For example, on rare occasions, there may be a special need to encourage the widest possible use of a certain library, so that it becomes a de-facto standard. To achieve this, non-free programs must be allowed to use the library. A more frequent case is that a free library does the same job as widely used non-free libraries. In this case, there is little to gain by limiting the free library to free software only, so we use the Lesser General Public License. In other cases, permission to use a particular library in non-free programs enables a greater number of people to use a large body of free software. For example, permission to use the GNU C Library in non-free programs enables many more people to use the whole GNU operating system, as well as its variant, the GNU/Linux operating system. Although the Lesser General Public License is Less protective of the users' freedom, it does ensure that the user of a program that is linked with the Library has the freedom and the wherewithal to run that program using a modified version of the Library. The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and modification follow. Pay close attention to the difference between a "work based on the library" and a "work that uses the library". The former contains code derived from the library, whereas the latter must be combined with the library in order to run. TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION 0. This License Agreement applies to any software library or other program which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder or other authorized party saying it may be distributed under the terms of this Lesser General Public License (also called "this License"). Each licensee is addressed as "you". A "library" means a collection of software functions and/or data prepared so as to be conveniently linked with application programs (which use some of those functions and data) to form executables. The "Library", below, refers to any such software library or work which has been distributed under these terms. A "work based on the Library" means either the Library or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say, a work containing the Library or a portion of it, either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated straightforwardly into another language. (Hereinafter, translation is included without limitation in the term "modification".) "Source code" for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. For a library, complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains, plus any associated interface definition files, plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the library. Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not covered by this License; they are outside its scope. The act of running a program using the Library is not restricted, and output from such a program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the Library (independent of the use of the Library in a tool for writing it). Whether that is true depends on what the Library does and what the program that uses the Library does. 1. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Library's complete source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty; and distribute a copy of this License along with the Library. You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee. 2. You may modify your copy or copies of the Library or any portion of it, thus forming a work based on the Library, and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above, provided that you also meet all of these conditions: a) The modified work must itself be a software library. b) You must cause the files modified to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and the date of any change. c) You must cause the whole of the work to be licensed at no charge to all third parties under the terms of this License. d) If a facility in the modified Library refers to a function or a table of data to be supplied by an application program that uses the facility, other than as an argument passed when the facility is invoked, then you must make a good faith effort to ensure that, in the event an application does not supply such function or table, the facility still operates, and performs whatever part of its purpose remains meaningful. (For example, a function in a library to compute square roots has a purpose that is entirely well-defined independent of the application. Therefore, Subsection 2d requires that any application-supplied function or table used by this function must be optional: if the application does not supply it, the square root function must still compute square roots.) These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Library, and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves, then this License, and its terms, do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Library, the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License, whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole, and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it. Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you; rather, the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on the Library. In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Library with the Library (or with a work based on the Library) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this License. 3. You may opt to apply the terms of the ordinary GNU General Public License instead of this License to a given copy of the Library. To do this, you must alter all the notices that refer to this License, so that they refer to the ordinary GNU General Public License, version 2, instead of to this License. (If a newer version than version 2 of the ordinary GNU General Public License has appeared, then you can specify that version instead if you wish.) Do not make any other change in these notices. Once this change is made in a given copy, it is irreversible for that copy, so the ordinary GNU General Public License applies to all subsequent copies and derivative works made from that copy. This option is useful when you wish to copy part of the code of the Library into a program that is not a library. 4. You may copy and distribute the Library (or a portion or derivative of it, under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code, which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. If distribution of object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place, then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place satisfies the requirement to distribute the source code, even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code. 5. A program that contains no derivative of any portion of the Library, but is designed to work with the Library by being compiled or linked with it, is called a "work that uses the Library". Such a work, in isolation, is not a derivative work of the Library, and therefore falls outside the scope of this License. However, linking a "work that uses the Library" with the Library creates an executable that is a derivative of the Library (because it contains portions of the Library), rather than a "work that uses the library". The executable is therefore covered by this License. Section 6 states terms for distribution of such executables. When a "work that uses the Library" uses material from a header file that is part of the Library, the object code for the work may be a derivative work of the Library even though the source code is not. Whether this is true is especially significant if the work can be linked without the Library, or if the work is itself a library. The threshold for this to be true is not precisely defined by law. If such an object file uses only numerical parameters, data structure layouts and accessors, and small macros and small inline functions (ten lines or less in length), then the use of the object file is unrestricted, regardless of whether it is legally a derivative work. (Executables containing this object code plus portions of the Library will still fall under Section 6.) Otherwise, if the work is a derivative of the Library, you may distribute the object code for the work under the terms of Section 6. Any executables containing that work also fall under Section 6, whether or not they are linked directly with the Library itself. 6. As an exception to the Sections above, you may also combine or link a "work that uses the Library" with the Library to produce a work containing portions of the Library, and distribute that work under terms of your choice, provided that the terms permit modification of the work for the customer's own use and reverse engineering for debugging such modifications. You must give prominent notice with each copy of the work that the Library is used in it and that the Library and its use are covered by this License. You must supply a copy of this License. If the work during execution displays copyright notices, you must include the copyright notice for the Library among them, as well as a reference directing the user to the copy of this License. Also, you must do one of these things: a) Accompany the work with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code for the Library including whatever changes were used in the work (which must be distributed under Sections 1 and 2 above); and, if the work is an executable linked with the Library, with the complete machine-readable "work that uses the Library", as object code and/or source code, so that the user can modify the Library and then relink to produce a modified executable containing the modified Library. (It is understood that the user who changes the contents of definitions files in the Library will not necessarily be able to recompile the application to use the modified definitions.) b) Use a suitable shared library mechanism for linking with the Library. A suitable mechanism is one that (1) uses at run time a copy of the library already present on the user's computer system, rather than copying library functions into the executable, and (2) will operate properly with a modified version of the library, if the user installs one, as long as the modified version is interface-compatible with the version that the work was made with. c) Accompany the work with a written offer, valid for at least three years, to give the same user the materials specified in Subsection 6a, above, for a charge no more than the cost of performing this distribution. d) If distribution of the work is made by offering access to copy from a designated place, offer equivalent access to copy the above specified materials from the same place. e) Verify that the user has already received a copy of these materials or that you have already sent this user a copy. For an executable, the required form of the "work that uses the Library" must include any data and utility programs needed for reproducing the executable from it. However, as a special exception, the materials to be distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler, kernel, and so on) of the operating system on which the executable runs, unless that component itself accompanies the executable. It may happen that this requirement contradicts the license restrictions of other proprietary libraries that do not normally accompany the operating system. Such a contradiction means you cannot use both them and the Library together in an executable that you distribute. 7. You may place library facilities that are a work based on the Library side-by-side in a single library together with other library facilities not covered by this License, and distribute such a combined library, provided that the separate distribution of the work based on the Library and of the other library facilities is otherwise permitted, and provided that you do these two things: a) Accompany the combined library with a copy of the same work based on the Library, uncombined with any other library facilities. This must be distributed under the terms of the Sections above. b) Give prominent notice with the combined library of the fact that part of it is a work based on the Library, and explaining where to find the accompanying uncombined form of the same work. 8. You may not copy, modify, sublicense, link with, or distribute the Library except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense, link with, or distribute the Library is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance. 9. You are not required to accept this License, since you have not signed it. However, nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute the Library or its derivative works. These actions are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. Therefore, by modifying or distributing the Library (or any work based on the Library), you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so, and all its terms and conditions for copying, distributing or modifying the Library or works based on it. 10. Each time you redistribute the Library (or any work based on the Library), the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy, distribute, link with or modify the Library subject to these terms and conditions. You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties with this License. 11. If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues), conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you may not distribute the Library at all. For example, if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Library by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you, then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Library. If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance, the balance of the section is intended to apply, and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances. It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system which is implemented by public license practices. Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice. This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License. 12. If the distribution and/or use of the Library is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces, the original copyright holder who places the Library under this License may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries, so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. In such case, this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License. 13. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the Lesser General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Library specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any later version", you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. If the Library does not specify a license version number, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation. 14. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Library into other free programs whose distribution conditions are incompatible with these, write to the author to ask for permission. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes make exceptions for this. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally. NO WARRANTY 15. BECAUSE THE LIBRARY IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE LIBRARY, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE LIBRARY "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE LIBRARY IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE LIBRARY PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR OR CORRECTION. 16. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE LIBRARY AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE LIBRARY (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE LIBRARY TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER SOFTWARE), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS How to Apply These Terms to Your New Libraries If you develop a new library, and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public, we recommend making it free software that everyone can redistribute and change. You can do so by permitting redistribution under these terms (or, alternatively, under the terms of the ordinary General Public License). To apply these terms, attach the following notices to the library. It is safest to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found. one line to give the library's name and an idea of what it does. Copyright (C) year name of author This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2.1 of the License, or (at your option) any later version. This library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU Lesser General Public License for more details. You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public License along with this library; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail. You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school, if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the library, if necessary. Here is a sample; alter the names: Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the library `Frob' (a library for tweaking knobs) written by James Random Hacker. signature of Ty Coon, 1 April 1990 Ty Coon, President of Vice That's all there is to it! __NOTOC__ __NOEDITSECTION__ {{pp-protected|small=yes}} {{shortcut|WP:CC BY-SA}} {{clear}} {{Wikipedia copyright}} {{ombox | text =
Creative Commons Deed
This is a human-readable summary of the full license below.
You are free: * '''to Share'''—to copy, distribute and transmit the work, and * '''to Remix'''—to [[Literary adaptation|adapt]] the work Under the following conditions: * '''Attribution'''—You must [[Attribution (copyright)|attribute]] the work in the manner specified by the author or [[wikt:licensor|licensor]] (but not in any way that suggests that they endorse you or your use of the work.) * '''Share Alike'''—If you alter, transform, or build upon this work, you may distribute the resulting work only under the same, similar or a compatible license. With the understanding that: * '''Waiver'''—Any of the above conditions can be [[Waiver|waived]] if you get permission from the copyright holder. * '''Other Rights'''—In no way are any of the following rights affected by the license: ** your [[fair dealing]] or [[fair use]] rights; ** the author's [[Moral rights (copyright law)|moral rights]]; and ** rights other persons may have either in the work itself or in how the work is used, such as [[Personality rights|publicity]] or [[Privacy law|privacy]] rights. * '''Notice'''—For any reuse or distribution, you must make clear to others the license terms of this work. The best way to do that is with a link to http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ | image = [[File:Cc.logo.circle.svg|40px]]}} =License= {{ombox|image=none|text=CREATIVE COMMONS CORPORATION IS NOT A LAW FIRM AND DOES NOT PROVIDE LEGAL SERVICES. DISTRIBUTION OF THIS LICENSE DOES NOT CREATE AN ATTORNEY-CLIENT RELATIONSHIP. CREATIVE COMMONS PROVIDES THIS INFORMATION ON AN "AS-IS" BASIS. CREATIVE COMMONS MAKES NO WARRANTIES REGARDING THE INFORMATION PROVIDED, AND DISCLAIMS LIABILITY FOR DAMAGES RESULTING FROM ITS USE.}} THE WORK (AS DEFINED BELOW) IS PROVIDED UNDER THE TERMS OF THIS CREATIVE COMMONS PUBLIC LICENSE ("CCPL" OR "LICENSE"). THE WORK IS PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT AND/OR OTHER APPLICABLE LAW. ANY USE OF THE WORK OTHER THAN AS AUTHORIZED UNDER THIS LICENSE OR COPYRIGHT LAW IS PROHIBITED. BY EXERCISING ANY RIGHTS TO THE WORK PROVIDED HERE, YOU ACCEPT AND AGREE TO BE BOUND BY THE TERMS OF THIS LICENSE. TO THE EXTENT THIS LICENSE MAY BE CONSIDERED TO BE A CONTRACT, THE LICENSOR GRANTS YOU THE RIGHTS CONTAINED HERE IN CONSIDERATION OF YOUR ACCEPTANCE OF SUCH TERMS AND CONDITIONS. ==1. Definitions==
  1. "'''Adaptation'''" means a work based upon the Work, or upon the Work and other pre-existing works, such as a translation, adaptation, derivative work, arrangement of music or other alterations of a literary or artistic work, or phonogram or performance and includes cinematographic adaptations or any other form in which the Work may be recast, transformed, or adapted including in any form recognizably derived from the original, except that a work that constitutes a Collection will not be considered an Adaptation for the purpose of this License. For the avoidance of doubt, where the Work is a musical work, performance or phonogram, the synchronization of the Work in timed-relation with a moving image ("synching") will be considered an Adaptation for the purpose of this License.
  2. "'''Collection'''" means a collection of literary or artistic works, such as encyclopedias and anthologies, or performances, phonograms or broadcasts, or other works or subject matter other than works listed in Section 1(f) below, which, by reason of the selection and arrangement of their contents, constitute intellectual creations, in which the Work is included in its entirety in unmodified form along with one or more other contributions, each constituting separate and independent works in themselves, which together are assembled into a collective whole. A work that constitutes a Collection will not be considered an Adaptation (as defined below) for the purposes of this License.
  3. "'''Creative Commons Compatible License'''" means a license that is listed at http://creativecommons.org/compatiblelicenses that has been approved by Creative Commons as being essentially equivalent to this License, including, at a minimum, because that license: (i) contains terms that have the same purpose, meaning and effect as the License Elements of this License; and, (ii) explicitly permits the relicensing of adaptations of works made available under that license under this License or a Creative Commons jurisdiction license with the same License Elements as this License.
  4. "'''Distribute'''" means to make available to the public the original and copies of the Work or Adaptation, as appropriate, through sale or other transfer of ownership.
  5. "'''License Elements'''" means the following high-level license attributes as selected by Licensor and indicated in the title of this License: Attribution, ShareAlike.
  6. "'''Licensor'''" means the individual, individuals, entity or entities that offer(s) the Work under the terms of this License.
  7. "'''Original Author'''" means, in the case of a literary or artistic work, the individual, individuals, entity or entities who created the Work or if no individual or entity can be identified, the publisher; and in addition (i) in the case of a performance the actors, singers, musicians, dancers, and other persons who act, sing, deliver, declaim, play in, interpret or otherwise perform literary or artistic works or expressions of folklore; (ii) in the case of a phonogram the producer being the person or legal entity who first fixes the sounds of a performance or other sounds; and, (iii) in the case of broadcasts, the organization that transmits the broadcast.
  8. "'''Work'''" means the literary and/or artistic work offered under the terms of this License including without limitation any production in the literary, scientific and artistic domain, whatever may be the mode or form of its expression including digital form, such as a book, pamphlet and other writing; a lecture, address, sermon or other work of the same nature; a dramatic or dramatico-musical work; a choreographic work or entertainment in dumb show; a musical composition with or without words; a cinematographic work to which are assimilated works expressed by a process analogous to cinematography; a work of drawing, painting, architecture, sculpture, engraving or lithography; a photographic work to which are assimilated works expressed by a process analogous to photography; a work of applied art; an illustration, map, plan, sketch or three-dimensional work relative to geography, topography, architecture or science; a performance; a broadcast; a phonogram; a compilation of data to the extent it is protected as a copyrightable work; or a work performed by a variety or circus performer to the extent it is not otherwise considered a literary or artistic work.
  9. "'''You'''" means an individual or entity exercising rights under this License who has not previously violated the terms of this License with respect to the Work, or who has received express permission from the Licensor to exercise rights under this License despite a previous violation.
  10. "'''Publicly Perform'''" means to perform public recitations of the Work and to communicate to the public those public recitations, by any means or process, including by wire or wireless means or public digital performances; to make available to the public Works in such a way that members of the public may access these Works from a place and at a place individually chosen by them; to perform the Work to the public by any means or process and the communication to the public of the performances of the Work, including by public digital performance; to broadcast and rebroadcast the Work by any means including signs, sounds or images.
  11. "'''Reproduce'''" means to make copies of the Work by any means including without limitation by sound or visual recordings and the right of fixation and reproducing fixations of the Work, including storage of a protected performance or phonogram in digital form or other electronic medium.
==2. Fair Dealing Rights== Nothing in this License is intended to reduce, limit, or restrict any uses free from copyright or rights arising from limitations or exceptions that are provided for in connection with the copyright protection under copyright law or other applicable laws. ==3. License Grant== Subject to the terms and conditions of this License, Licensor hereby grants You a worldwide, royalty-free, non-exclusive, perpetual (for the duration of the applicable copyright) license to exercise the rights in the Work as stated below:
  1. to Reproduce the Work, to incorporate the Work into one or more Collections, and to Reproduce the Work as incorporated in the Collections;
  2. to create and Reproduce Adaptations provided that any such Adaptation, including any translation in any medium, takes reasonable steps to clearly label, demarcate or otherwise identify that changes were made to the original Work. For example, a translation could be marked "The original work was translated from English to Spanish," or a modification could indicate "The original work has been modified.";
  3. to Distribute and Publicly Perform the Work including as incorporated in Collections; and,
  4. to Distribute and Publicly Perform Adaptations.
  5. For the avoidance of doubt:
    1. '''Non-waivable Compulsory License Schemes.''' In those jurisdictions in which the right to collect royalties through any statutory or compulsory licensing scheme cannot be waived, the Licensor reserves the exclusive right to collect such royalties for any exercise by You of the rights granted under this License;
    2. '''Waivable Compulsory License Schemes.''' In those jurisdictions in which the right to collect royalties through any statutory or compulsory licensing scheme can be waived, the Licensor waives the exclusive right to collect such royalties for any exercise by You of the rights granted under this License; and,
    3. '''Voluntary License Schemes.''' The Licensor waives the right to collect royalties, whether individually or, in the event that the Licensor is a member of a collecting society that administers voluntary licensing schemes, via that society, from any exercise by You of the rights granted under this License.
The above rights may be exercised in all media and formats whether now known or hereafter devised. The above rights include the right to make such modifications as are technically necessary to exercise the rights in other media and formats. Subject to Section 8(f), all rights not expressly granted by Licensor are hereby reserved. ==4. Restrictions== The license granted in Section 3 above is expressly made subject to and limited by the following restrictions:
  1. You may Distribute or Publicly Perform the Work only under the terms of this License. You must include a copy of, or the Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) for, this License with every copy of the Work You Distribute or Publicly Perform. You may not offer or impose any terms on the Work that restrict the terms of this License or the ability of the recipient of the Work to exercise the rights granted to that recipient under the terms of the License. You may not sublicense the Work. You must keep intact all notices that refer to this License and to the disclaimer of warranties with every copy of the Work You Distribute or Publicly Perform. When You Distribute or Publicly Perform the Work, You may not impose any effective technological measures on the Work that restrict the ability of a recipient of the Work from You to exercise the rights granted to that recipient under the terms of the License. This Section 4(a) applies to the Work as incorporated in a Collection, but this does not require the Collection apart from the Work itself to be made subject to the terms of this License. If You create a Collection, upon notice from any Licensor You must, to the extent practicable, remove from the Collection any credit as required by Section 4(c), as requested. If You create an Adaptation, upon notice from any Licensor You must, to the extent practicable, remove from the Adaptation any credit as required by Section 4(c), as requested.
  2. You may Distribute or Publicly Perform an Adaptation only under the terms of: (i) this License; (ii) a later version of this License with the same License Elements as this License; (iii) a Creative Commons jurisdiction license (either this or a later license version) that contains the same License Elements as this License (e.g., Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 US)); (iv) a Creative Commons Compatible License. If you license the Adaptation under one of the licenses mentioned in (iv), you must comply with the terms of that license. If you license the Adaptation under the terms of any of the licenses mentioned in (i), (ii) or (iii) (the "Applicable License"), you must comply with the terms of the Applicable License generally and the following provisions: (I) You must include a copy of, or the URI for, the Applicable License with every copy of each Adaptation You Distribute or Publicly Perform; (II) You may not offer or impose any terms on the Adaptation that restrict the terms of the Applicable License or the ability of the recipient of the Adaptation to exercise the rights granted to that recipient under the terms of the Applicable License; (III) You must keep intact all notices that refer to the Applicable License and to the disclaimer of warranties with every copy of the Work as included in the Adaptation You Distribute or Publicly Perform; (IV) when You Distribute or Publicly Perform the Adaptation, You may not impose any effective technological measures on the Adaptation that restrict the ability of a recipient of the Adaptation from You to exercise the rights granted to that recipient under the terms of the Applicable License. This Section 4(b) applies to the Adaptation as incorporated in a Collection, but this does not require the Collection apart from the Adaptation itself to be made subject to the terms of the Applicable License.
  3. If You Distribute, or Publicly Perform the Work or any Adaptations or Collections, You must, unless a request has been made pursuant to Section 4(a), keep intact all copyright notices for the Work and provide, reasonable to the medium or means You are utilizing: (i) the name of the Original Author (or pseudonym, if applicable) if supplied, and/or if the Original Author and/or Licensor designate another party or parties (e.g., a sponsor institute, publishing entity, journal) for attribution ("Attribution Parties") in Licensor's copyright notice, terms of service or by other reasonable means, the name of such party or parties; (ii) the title of the Work if supplied; (iii) to the extent reasonably practicable, the URI, if any, that Licensor specifies to be associated with the Work, unless such URI does not refer to the copyright notice or licensing information for the Work; and (iv) , consistent with Section 3(b), in the case of an Adaptation, a credit identifying the use of the Work in the Adaptation (e.g., "French translation of the Work by Original Author," or "Screenplay based on original Work by Original Author"). The credit required by this Section 4(c) may be implemented in any reasonable manner; provided, however, that in the case of a Adaptation or Collection, at a minimum such credit will appear, if a credit for all contributing authors of the Adaptation or Collection appears, then as part of these credits and in a manner at least as prominent as the credits for the other contributing authors. For the avoidance of doubt, You may only use the credit required by this Section for the purpose of attribution in the manner set out above and, by exercising Your rights under this License, You may not implicitly or explicitly assert or imply any connection with, sponsorship or endorsement by the Original Author, Licensor and/or Attribution Parties, as appropriate, of You or Your use of the Work, without the separate, express prior written permission of the Original Author, Licensor and/or Attribution Parties.
  4. Except as otherwise agreed in writing by the Licensor or as may be otherwise permitted by applicable law, if You Reproduce, Distribute or Publicly Perform the Work either by itself or as part of any Adaptations or Collections, You must not distort, mutilate, modify or take other derogatory action in relation to the Work which would be prejudicial to the Original Author's honor or reputation. Licensor agrees that in those jurisdictions (e.g. Japan), in which any exercise of the right granted in Section 3(b) of this License (the right to make Adaptations) would be deemed to be a distortion, mutilation, modification or other derogatory action prejudicial to the Original Author's honor and reputation, the Licensor will waive or not assert, as appropriate, this Section, to the fullest extent permitted by the applicable national law, to enable You to reasonably exercise Your right under Section 3(b) of this License (right to make Adaptations) but not otherwise.
==5. Representations, Warranties and Disclaimer== UNLESS OTHERWISE MUTUALLY AGREED TO BY THE PARTIES IN WRITING, LICENSOR OFFERS THE WORK AS-IS AND MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND CONCERNING THE WORK, EXPRESS, IMPLIED, STATUTORY OR OTHERWISE, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, WARRANTIES OF TITLE, MERCHANTIBILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, NONINFRINGEMENT, OR THE ABSENCE OF LATENT OR OTHER DEFECTS, ACCURACY, OR THE PRESENCE OF ABSENCE OF ERRORS, WHETHER OR NOT DISCOVERABLE. SOME JURISDICTIONS DO NOT ALLOW THE EXCLUSION OF IMPLIED WARRANTIES, SO SUCH EXCLUSION MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU. ==6. Limitation on Liability== EXCEPT TO THE EXTENT REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW, IN NO EVENT WILL LICENSOR BE LIABLE TO YOU ON ANY LEGAL THEORY FOR ANY SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, CONSEQUENTIAL, PUNITIVE OR EXEMPLARY DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THIS LICENSE OR THE USE OF THE WORK, EVEN IF LICENSOR HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. ==7. Termination==
  1. This License and the rights granted hereunder will terminate automatically upon any breach by You of the terms of this License. Individuals or entities who have received Adaptations or Collections from You under this License, however, will not have their licenses terminated provided such individuals or entities remain in full compliance with those licenses. Sections 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, and 8 will survive any termination of this License.
  2. Subject to the above terms and conditions, the license granted here is perpetual (for the duration of the applicable copyright in the Work). Notwithstanding the above, Licensor reserves the right to release the Work under different license terms or to stop distributing the Work at any time; provided, however that any such election will not serve to withdraw this License (or any other license that has been, or is required to be, granted under the terms of this License), and this License will continue in full force and effect unless terminated as stated above.
==8. Miscellaneous==
  1. Each time You Distribute or Publicly Perform the Work or a Collection, the Licensor offers to the recipient a license to the Work on the same terms and conditions as the license granted to You under this License.
  2. Each time You Distribute or Publicly Perform an Adaptation, Licensor offers to the recipient a license to the original Work on the same terms and conditions as the license granted to You under this License.
  3. If any provision of this License is invalid or unenforceable under applicable law, it shall not affect the validity or enforceability of the remainder of the terms of this License, and without further action by the parties to this agreement, such provision shall be reformed to the minimum extent necessary to make such provision valid and enforceable.
  4. No term or provision of this License shall be deemed waived and no breach consented to unless such waiver or consent shall be in writing and signed by the party to be charged with such waiver or consent.
  5. This License constitutes the entire agreement between the parties with respect to the Work licensed here. There are no understandings, agreements or representations with respect to the Work not specified here. Licensor shall not be bound by any additional provisions that may appear in any communication from You. This License may not be modified without the mutual written agreement of the Licensor and You.
  6. The rights granted under, and the subject matter referenced, in this License were drafted utilizing the terminology of the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works (as amended on September 28, 1979), the Rome Convention of 1961, the WIPO Copyright Treaty of 1996, the WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty of 1996 and the Universal Copyright Convention (as revised on July 24, 1971). These rights and subject matter take effect in the relevant jurisdiction in which the License terms are sought to be enforced according to the corresponding provisions of the implementation of those treaty provisions in the applicable national law. If the standard suite of rights granted under applicable copyright law includes additional rights not granted under this License, such additional rights are deemed to be included in the License; this License is not intended to restrict the license of any rights under applicable law.
{{ombox|image=none|text=

Creative Commons Notice

Creative Commons is not a party to this License, and makes no warranty whatsoever in connection with the Work. Creative Commons will not be liable to You or any party on any legal theory for any damages whatsoever, including without limitation any general, special, incidental or consequential damages arising in connection to this license. Notwithstanding the foregoing two (2) sentences, if Creative Commons has expressly identified itself as the Licensor hereunder, it shall have all rights and obligations of Licensor. Except for the limited purpose of indicating to the public that the Work is licensed under the CCPL, Creative Commons does not authorize the use by either party of the trademark "Creative Commons" or any related trademark or logo of Creative Commons without the prior written consent of Creative Commons. Any permitted use will be in compliance with Creative Commons' then-current trademark usage guidelines, as may be published on its website or otherwise made available upon request from time to time. For the avoidance of doubt, this trademark restriction does not form part of the License. Creative Commons may be contacted at http://creativecommons.org/. }} [[Category:Wikipedia copyright]] __NOTOC__ __NOEDITSECTION__ {{pp-protected|small=yes}} {{shortcut|WP:CC BY-SA}} {{clear}} {{Wikipedia copyright}} {{ombox | text =
Creative Commons Deed
This is a human-readable summary of the full license below.
You are free: * '''to Share'''—to copy, distribute and transmit the work, and * '''to Remix'''—to [[Literary adaptation|adapt]] the work Under the following conditions: * '''Attribution'''—You must [[Attribution (copyright)|attribute]] the work in the manner specified by the author or [[wikt:licensor|licensor]] (but not in any way that suggests that they endorse you or your use of the work.) * '''Share Alike'''—If you alter, transform, or build upon this work, you may distribute the resulting work only under the same, similar or a compatible license. With the understanding that: * '''Waiver'''—Any of the above conditions can be [[Waiver|waived]] if you get permission from the copyright holder. * '''Other Rights'''—In no way are any of the following rights affected by the license: ** your [[fair dealing]] or [[fair use]] rights; ** the author's [[Moral rights (copyright law)|moral rights]]; and ** rights other persons may have either in the work itself or in how the work is used, such as [[Personality rights|publicity]] or [[Privacy law|privacy]] rights. * '''Notice'''—For any reuse or distribution, you must make clear to others the license terms of this work. The best way to do that is with a link to http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ | image = [[File:Cc.logo.circle.svg|40px]]}} =License= {{ombox|image=none|text=CREATIVE COMMONS CORPORATION IS NOT A LAW FIRM AND DOES NOT PROVIDE LEGAL SERVICES. DISTRIBUTION OF THIS LICENSE DOES NOT CREATE AN ATTORNEY-CLIENT RELATIONSHIP. CREATIVE COMMONS PROVIDES THIS INFORMATION ON AN "AS-IS" BASIS. CREATIVE COMMONS MAKES NO WARRANTIES REGARDING THE INFORMATION PROVIDED, AND DISCLAIMS LIABILITY FOR DAMAGES RESULTING FROM ITS USE.}} THE WORK (AS DEFINED BELOW) IS PROVIDED UNDER THE TERMS OF THIS CREATIVE COMMONS PUBLIC LICENSE ("CCPL" OR "LICENSE"). THE WORK IS PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT AND/OR OTHER APPLICABLE LAW. ANY USE OF THE WORK OTHER THAN AS AUTHORIZED UNDER THIS LICENSE OR COPYRIGHT LAW IS PROHIBITED. BY EXERCISING ANY RIGHTS TO THE WORK PROVIDED HERE, YOU ACCEPT AND AGREE TO BE BOUND BY THE TERMS OF THIS LICENSE. TO THE EXTENT THIS LICENSE MAY BE CONSIDERED TO BE A CONTRACT, THE LICENSOR GRANTS YOU THE RIGHTS CONTAINED HERE IN CONSIDERATION OF YOUR ACCEPTANCE OF SUCH TERMS AND CONDITIONS. ==1. Definitions==
  1. "'''Adaptation'''" means a work based upon the Work, or upon the Work and other pre-existing works, such as a translation, adaptation, derivative work, arrangement of music or other alterations of a literary or artistic work, or phonogram or performance and includes cinematographic adaptations or any other form in which the Work may be recast, transformed, or adapted including in any form recognizably derived from the original, except that a work that constitutes a Collection will not be considered an Adaptation for the purpose of this License. For the avoidance of doubt, where the Work is a musical work, performance or phonogram, the synchronization of the Work in timed-relation with a moving image ("synching") will be considered an Adaptation for the purpose of this License.
  2. "'''Collection'''" means a collection of literary or artistic works, such as encyclopedias and anthologies, or performances, phonograms or broadcasts, or other works or subject matter other than works listed in Section 1(f) below, which, by reason of the selection and arrangement of their contents, constitute intellectual creations, in which the Work is included in its entirety in unmodified form along with one or more other contributions, each constituting separate and independent works in themselves, which together are assembled into a collective whole. A work that constitutes a Collection will not be considered an Adaptation (as defined below) for the purposes of this License.
  3. "'''Creative Commons Compatible License'''" means a license that is listed at http://creativecommons.org/compatiblelicenses that has been approved by Creative Commons as being essentially equivalent to this License, including, at a minimum, because that license: (i) contains terms that have the same purpose, meaning and effect as the License Elements of this License; and, (ii) explicitly permits the relicensing of adaptations of works made available under that license under this License or a Creative Commons jurisdiction license with the same License Elements as this License.
  4. "'''Distribute'''" means to make available to the public the original and copies of the Work or Adaptation, as appropriate, through sale or other transfer of ownership.
  5. "'''License Elements'''" means the following high-level license attributes as selected by Licensor and indicated in the title of this License: Attribution, ShareAlike.
  6. "'''Licensor'''" means the individual, individuals, entity or entities that offer(s) the Work under the terms of this License.
  7. "'''Original Author'''" means, in the case of a literary or artistic work, the individual, individuals, entity or entities who created the Work or if no individual or entity can be identified, the publisher; and in addition (i) in the case of a performance the actors, singers, musicians, dancers, and other persons who act, sing, deliver, declaim, play in, interpret or otherwise perform literary or artistic works or expressions of folklore; (ii) in the case of a phonogram the producer being the person or legal entity who first fixes the sounds of a performance or other sounds; and, (iii) in the case of broadcasts, the organization that transmits the broadcast.
  8. "'''Work'''" means the literary and/or artistic work offered under the terms of this License including without limitation any production in the literary, scientific and artistic domain, whatever may be the mode or form of its expression including digital form, such as a book, pamphlet and other writing; a lecture, address, sermon or other work of the same nature; a dramatic or dramatico-musical work; a choreographic work or entertainment in dumb show; a musical composition with or without words; a cinematographic work to which are assimilated works expressed by a process analogous to cinematography; a work of drawing, painting, architecture, sculpture, engraving or lithography; a photographic work to which are assimilated works expressed by a process analogous to photography; a work of applied art; an illustration, map, plan, sketch or three-dimensional work relative to geography, topography, architecture or science; a performance; a broadcast; a phonogram; a compilation of data to the extent it is protected as a copyrightable work; or a work performed by a variety or circus performer to the extent it is not otherwise considered a literary or artistic work.
  9. "'''You'''" means an individual or entity exercising rights under this License who has not previously violated the terms of this License with respect to the Work, or who has received express permission from the Licensor to exercise rights under this License despite a previous violation.
  10. "'''Publicly Perform'''" means to perform public recitations of the Work and to communicate to the public those public recitations, by any means or process, including by wire or wireless means or public digital performances; to make available to the public Works in such a way that members of the public may access these Works from a place and at a place individually chosen by them; to perform the Work to the public by any means or process and the communication to the public of the performances of the Work, including by public digital performance; to broadcast and rebroadcast the Work by any means including signs, sounds or images.
  11. "'''Reproduce'''" means to make copies of the Work by any means including without limitation by sound or visual recordings and the right of fixation and reproducing fixations of the Work, including storage of a protected performance or phonogram in digital form or other electronic medium.
==2. Fair Dealing Rights== Nothing in this License is intended to reduce, limit, or restrict any uses free from copyright or rights arising from limitations or exceptions that are provided for in connection with the copyright protection under copyright law or other applicable laws. ==3. License Grant== Subject to the terms and conditions of this License, Licensor hereby grants You a worldwide, royalty-free, non-exclusive, perpetual (for the duration of the applicable copyright) license to exercise the rights in the Work as stated below:
  1. to Reproduce the Work, to incorporate the Work into one or more Collections, and to Reproduce the Work as incorporated in the Collections;
  2. to create and Reproduce Adaptations provided that any such Adaptation, including any translation in any medium, takes reasonable steps to clearly label, demarcate or otherwise identify that changes were made to the original Work. For example, a translation could be marked "The original work was translated from English to Spanish," or a modification could indicate "The original work has been modified.";
  3. to Distribute and Publicly Perform the Work including as incorporated in Collections; and,
  4. to Distribute and Publicly Perform Adaptations.
  5. For the avoidance of doubt:
    1. '''Non-waivable Compulsory License Schemes.''' In those jurisdictions in which the right to collect royalties through any statutory or compulsory licensing scheme cannot be waived, the Licensor reserves the exclusive right to collect such royalties for any exercise by You of the rights granted under this License;
    2. '''Waivable Compulsory License Schemes.''' In those jurisdictions in which the right to collect royalties through any statutory or compulsory licensing scheme can be waived, the Licensor waives the exclusive right to collect such royalties for any exercise by You of the rights granted under this License; and,
    3. '''Voluntary License Schemes.''' The Licensor waives the right to collect royalties, whether individually or, in the event that the Licensor is a member of a collecting society that administers voluntary licensing schemes, via that society, from any exercise by You of the rights granted under this License.
The above rights may be exercised in all media and formats whether now known or hereafter devised. The above rights include the right to make such modifications as are technically necessary to exercise the rights in other media and formats. Subject to Section 8(f), all rights not expressly granted by Licensor are hereby reserved. ==4. Restrictions== The license granted in Section 3 above is expressly made subject to and limited by the following restrictions:
  1. You may Distribute or Publicly Perform the Work only under the terms of this License. You must include a copy of, or the Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) for, this License with every copy of the Work You Distribute or Publicly Perform. You may not offer or impose any terms on the Work that restrict the terms of this License or the ability of the recipient of the Work to exercise the rights granted to that recipient under the terms of the License. You may not sublicense the Work. You must keep intact all notices that refer to this License and to the disclaimer of warranties with every copy of the Work You Distribute or Publicly Perform. When You Distribute or Publicly Perform the Work, You may not impose any effective technological measures on the Work that restrict the ability of a recipient of the Work from You to exercise the rights granted to that recipient under the terms of the License. This Section 4(a) applies to the Work as incorporated in a Collection, but this does not require the Collection apart from the Work itself to be made subject to the terms of this License. If You create a Collection, upon notice from any Licensor You must, to the extent practicable, remove from the Collection any credit as required by Section 4(c), as requested. If You create an Adaptation, upon notice from any Licensor You must, to the extent practicable, remove from the Adaptation any credit as required by Section 4(c), as requested.
  2. You may Distribute or Publicly Perform an Adaptation only under the terms of: (i) this License; (ii) a later version of this License with the same License Elements as this License; (iii) a Creative Commons jurisdiction license (either this or a later license version) that contains the same License Elements as this License (e.g., Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 US)); (iv) a Creative Commons Compatible License. If you license the Adaptation under one of the licenses mentioned in (iv), you must comply with the terms of that license. If you license the Adaptation under the terms of any of the licenses mentioned in (i), (ii) or (iii) (the "Applicable License"), you must comply with the terms of the Applicable License generally and the following provisions: (I) You must include a copy of, or the URI for, the Applicable License with every copy of each Adaptation You Distribute or Publicly Perform; (II) You may not offer or impose any terms on the Adaptation that restrict the terms of the Applicable License or the ability of the recipient of the Adaptation to exercise the rights granted to that recipient under the terms of the Applicable License; (III) You must keep intact all notices that refer to the Applicable License and to the disclaimer of warranties with every copy of the Work as included in the Adaptation You Distribute or Publicly Perform; (IV) when You Distribute or Publicly Perform the Adaptation, You may not impose any effective technological measures on the Adaptation that restrict the ability of a recipient of the Adaptation from You to exercise the rights granted to that recipient under the terms of the Applicable License. This Section 4(b) applies to the Adaptation as incorporated in a Collection, but this does not require the Collection apart from the Adaptation itself to be made subject to the terms of the Applicable License.
  3. If You Distribute, or Publicly Perform the Work or any Adaptations or Collections, You must, unless a request has been made pursuant to Section 4(a), keep intact all copyright notices for the Work and provide, reasonable to the medium or means You are utilizing: (i) the name of the Original Author (or pseudonym, if applicable) if supplied, and/or if the Original Author and/or Licensor designate another party or parties (e.g., a sponsor institute, publishing entity, journal) for attribution ("Attribution Parties") in Licensor's copyright notice, terms of service or by other reasonable means, the name of such party or parties; (ii) the title of the Work if supplied; (iii) to the extent reasonably practicable, the URI, if any, that Licensor specifies to be associated with the Work, unless such URI does not refer to the copyright notice or licensing information for the Work; and (iv) , consistent with Section 3(b), in the case of an Adaptation, a credit identifying the use of the Work in the Adaptation (e.g., "French translation of the Work by Original Author," or "Screenplay based on original Work by Original Author"). The credit required by this Section 4(c) may be implemented in any reasonable manner; provided, however, that in the case of a Adaptation or Collection, at a minimum such credit will appear, if a credit for all contributing authors of the Adaptation or Collection appears, then as part of these credits and in a manner at least as prominent as the credits for the other contributing authors. For the avoidance of doubt, You may only use the credit required by this Section for the purpose of attribution in the manner set out above and, by exercising Your rights under this License, You may not implicitly or explicitly assert or imply any connection with, sponsorship or endorsement by the Original Author, Licensor and/or Attribution Parties, as appropriate, of You or Your use of the Work, without the separate, express prior written permission of the Original Author, Licensor and/or Attribution Parties.
  4. Except as otherwise agreed in writing by the Licensor or as may be otherwise permitted by applicable law, if You Reproduce, Distribute or Publicly Perform the Work either by itself or as part of any Adaptations or Collections, You must not distort, mutilate, modify or take other derogatory action in relation to the Work which would be prejudicial to the Original Author's honor or reputation. Licensor agrees that in those jurisdictions (e.g. Japan), in which any exercise of the right granted in Section 3(b) of this License (the right to make Adaptations) would be deemed to be a distortion, mutilation, modification or other derogatory action prejudicial to the Original Author's honor and reputation, the Licensor will waive or not assert, as appropriate, this Section, to the fullest extent permitted by the applicable national law, to enable You to reasonably exercise Your right under Section 3(b) of this License (right to make Adaptations) but not otherwise.
==5. Representations, Warranties and Disclaimer== UNLESS OTHERWISE MUTUALLY AGREED TO BY THE PARTIES IN WRITING, LICENSOR OFFERS THE WORK AS-IS AND MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND CONCERNING THE WORK, EXPRESS, IMPLIED, STATUTORY OR OTHERWISE, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, WARRANTIES OF TITLE, MERCHANTIBILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, NONINFRINGEMENT, OR THE ABSENCE OF LATENT OR OTHER DEFECTS, ACCURACY, OR THE PRESENCE OF ABSENCE OF ERRORS, WHETHER OR NOT DISCOVERABLE. SOME JURISDICTIONS DO NOT ALLOW THE EXCLUSION OF IMPLIED WARRANTIES, SO SUCH EXCLUSION MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU. ==6. Limitation on Liability== EXCEPT TO THE EXTENT REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW, IN NO EVENT WILL LICENSOR BE LIABLE TO YOU ON ANY LEGAL THEORY FOR ANY SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, CONSEQUENTIAL, PUNITIVE OR EXEMPLARY DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THIS LICENSE OR THE USE OF THE WORK, EVEN IF LICENSOR HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. ==7. Termination==
  1. This License and the rights granted hereunder will terminate automatically upon any breach by You of the terms of this License. Individuals or entities who have received Adaptations or Collections from You under this License, however, will not have their licenses terminated provided such individuals or entities remain in full compliance with those licenses. Sections 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, and 8 will survive any termination of this License.
  2. Subject to the above terms and conditions, the license granted here is perpetual (for the duration of the applicable copyright in the Work). Notwithstanding the above, Licensor reserves the right to release the Work under different license terms or to stop distributing the Work at any time; provided, however that any such election will not serve to withdraw this License (or any other license that has been, or is required to be, granted under the terms of this License), and this License will continue in full force and effect unless terminated as stated above.
==8. Miscellaneous==
  1. Each time You Distribute or Publicly Perform the Work or a Collection, the Licensor offers to the recipient a license to the Work on the same terms and conditions as the license granted to You under this License.
  2. Each time You Distribute or Publicly Perform an Adaptation, Licensor offers to the recipient a license to the original Work on the same terms and conditions as the license granted to You under this License.
  3. If any provision of this License is invalid or unenforceable under applicable law, it shall not affect the validity or enforceability of the remainder of the terms of this License, and without further action by the parties to this agreement, such provision shall be reformed to the minimum extent necessary to make such provision valid and enforceable.
  4. No term or provision of this License shall be deemed waived and no breach consented to unless such waiver or consent shall be in writing and signed by the party to be charged with such waiver or consent.
  5. This License constitutes the entire agreement between the parties with respect to the Work licensed here. There are no understandings, agreements or representations with respect to the Work not specified here. Licensor shall not be bound by any additional provisions that may appear in any communication from You. This License may not be modified without the mutual written agreement of the Licensor and You.
  6. The rights granted under, and the subject matter referenced, in this License were drafted utilizing the terminology of the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works (as amended on September 28, 1979), the Rome Convention of 1961, the WIPO Copyright Treaty of 1996, the WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty of 1996 and the Universal Copyright Convention (as revised on July 24, 1971). These rights and subject matter take effect in the relevant jurisdiction in which the License terms are sought to be enforced according to the corresponding provisions of the implementation of those treaty provisions in the applicable national law. If the standard suite of rights granted under applicable copyright law includes additional rights not granted under this License, such additional rights are deemed to be included in the License; this License is not intended to restrict the license of any rights under applicable law.
{{ombox|image=none|text=

Creative Commons Notice

Creative Commons is not a party to this License, and makes no warranty whatsoever in connection with the Work. Creative Commons will not be liable to You or any party on any legal theory for any damages whatsoever, including without limitation any general, special, incidental or consequential damages arising in connection to this license. Notwithstanding the foregoing two (2) sentences, if Creative Commons has expressly identified itself as the Licensor hereunder, it shall have all rights and obligations of Licensor. Except for the limited purpose of indicating to the public that the Work is licensed under the CCPL, Creative Commons does not authorize the use by either party of the trademark "Creative Commons" or any related trademark or logo of Creative Commons without the prior written consent of Creative Commons. Any permitted use will be in compliance with Creative Commons' then-current trademark usage guidelines, as may be published on its website or otherwise made available upon request from time to time. For the avoidance of doubt, this trademark restriction does not form part of the License. Creative Commons may be contacted at http://creativecommons.org/. }} [[Category:Wikipedia copyright]] {{Main page}} Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, PO Box 1866, Mountain View, CA 94042, USA.the study by VOLKAN TEMEL is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial 3.0 License. Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at My Book by Jon Phillips is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial 3.0 License. Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at somecompany.com. Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. World Wide Web Consortium MIT/LCS 545 Technology Square 02143 Cambridge MA USA INRIA/Sophia Antipolis 2004 Routes des Lucioles F-06902 Sophia Antipolis FRANCE Keio University Shonan Fujisawa Campus 252-8520 5322 Endo, Fujisawa-shi, Kanagawa JAPAN BeiHang University XueYuan Road No.37 Beijing CHINA site-policy@w3.org 1 617 2532613 Logo of the World Wide Web Consortium We collect typical access logs, which we use for server administration and Web protocol research. We use cookies to understand usage patterns and to maintain state for applications including wikis, Bugzilla and blogs. Users may create accounts (Public or Member) in order to join groups, edit the wiki or use other applications on the site. When you create a user account, you are asked for a username, email address, real name, and affiliation. This information is stored in the database and displayed on your public profile page; your email address is not displayed in your profile unless you choose to do so. You may choose to provide additional information for public display. Maintaining records of membership in groups. Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
You can add HTML directly into this element to render on the page.

Just edit this element to add your own HTML. "use strict" var app = require('./express')() var http = require('http') var geo = require('./geo') var server = http.createServer(app) server.listen(process.env.PORT || 9009, function() { console.info('server listening on http://localhost:' + server.address().port) }) var interval = 60 * 60 * 1000 // 1 hour setInterval(function(){ geo.getIdsOlderThan(interval, function(err, docs) { if (err) return console.error(err); console.info('removing old geo docs: ' + docs.length); docs.forEach(geo.remove); }); }, interval)

You can add HTML directly into this element to render on the page.

Just edit this element to add your own HTML.

You can add HTML directly into this element to render on the page.

Just edit this element to add your own HTML. 'use strict'; var xhr = require('cs-xhr') var querystring = require('querystring') var uriRoot = window.location.origin if(window.buildType === 'phonegap') { uriRoot = process.env.PHONEGAP_URL } function register(wallet_id, pin, callback) { postCredentials('register', { wallet_id: wallet_id, pin: pin }, callback) } function login(wallet_id, pin, callback) { postCredentials('login', { wallet_id: wallet_id, pin: pin }, callback) } function exist(wallet_id, callback) { xhr({ uri: uriRoot + "/exist?wallet_id=" + wallet_id, method: 'GET' }, function(err, resp, body){ if(resp.statusCode !== 200) { console.error(body) return callback(JSON.parse(body)) } callback(null, body === 'true') }) } function disablePin(wallet_id, pin, callback) { xhr({ uri: uriRoot + "/pin", headers: { "Content-Type": "application/json" }, method: 'DELETE', body: JSON.stringify({id: wallet_id, pin: pin}) }, function(err, resp, body){ if(resp.statusCode !== 200) { console.error(body) return callback(JSON.parse(body)) } callback() }) } function postCredentials(endpoint, data, callback) { xhr({ uri: uriRoot + "/" + endpoint, headers: { "Content-Type": "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" }, method: 'POST', body: querystring.stringify(data) }, function(err, resp, body){ if(resp.statusCode !== 200) { console.error(body) return callback(JSON.parse(body)) } callback(null, body) }) } module.exports = { register: register, login: login, exist: exist, disablePin: disablePin }

You can add HTML directly into this element to render on the page.

Just edit this element to add your own HTML. 'use strict'; var PouchDB = require('pouchdb') var db = new PouchDB('cs-local') var credentials = "credentials" function saveEncrypedSeed(id, encryptedSeed, callback) { db.get(credentials, function(err, doc){ if(doc) { return db.remove(doc, function(err){ if(err) return callback(err); saveEncrypedSeed(id, encryptedSeed, callback) }) } doc = { _id: credentials, id: id, seed: encryptedSeed } db.put(doc, callback) }) } function getCredentials(callback) { db.get(credentials, callback) } function deleteCredentials(doc, callback) { db.remove(doc, function(err){ if(err) console.error('failed to delete credentials'); return callback(err) }) } function getPendingTxs(callback){ db.get('pendingTxs', function(err, doc){ if(err) { if(err.status === 404) { return callback(null, []) } return callback(err); } callback(null, doc.txs) }) } function setPendingTxs(txs, callback) { savePendingTx(txs, function(doc){ doc.txs = txs }, callback) } function addPendingTx(tx, callback) { savePendingTx(tx, function(doc){ doc.txs.push(tx) }, callback) } function savePendingTx(tx, processDoc, callback) { db.get('pendingTxs', function(err, doc){ if(err) { if(err.status === 404) { return db.put({ _id: 'pendingTxs', txs: [].concat(tx) }, callback) } return callback(err) } processDoc(doc) db.put(doc, callback) }) } module.exports = { saveEncrypedSeed: saveEncrypedSeed, getCredentials: getCredentials, deleteCredentials: deleteCredentials, getPendingTxs: getPendingTxs, setPendingTxs: setPendingTxs, addPendingTx: addPendingTx }

You can add HTML directly into this element to render on the page.

Just edit this element to add your own HTML. 8/9/14 to legacy, me http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2048.txt Sent from my Xperia™ smartphone Google Legacy posted all of it on my site hun ty for that Legacy@Legacy.Ventures Apr 7 Google Legacy did u like my addon??? Legacy@Legacy.Ventures Apr 7 Google Legacy Apr 7 to F3 Categorize this message as:Personal Never show this again how do u like http://googlelegacy.com??? It's the best thanks to you :) www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2070.txt Inbox x F3 Maps 8/9/14 to legacy, me Categorize this message as:Personal Never show this again http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2070.txt Sent from my Xperia™ smartphone Click here to Reply, Reply to all, or Forward 3.74 GB (24%) of 15 GB used Manage Terms - Privacy Last account activity: 6 minutes ago Details= Includingm.f3maps@f3maps.au.m=m.f3maps.m=0419513220zone1st*contactconnection&t3fmapsELIZA*;http://www.w3.org/2014/08/p3p.xml;googlegaci'CORELZ* Move to Inbox More 12 of 57 Expand all Print all In new window RE: your job application for an advertised vacancy F3 Maps As @ of today 08/08/2014;08/08/'09025*F3Maps*08/08/9335*+<*tgfb3maps;#trfbts;... 8/8/14="" f3="" maps=""> 8/8/14 to info, legacy, me, jobs Jason Weeks 9/22/15 to F3 Categorize this message as:Personal Never show this again what should i do now?? Legacy@Legacy.Ventures Move to Inbox More 13 of 57 Expand all Print all In new window www.w3.org/2014/08/p3p.xml F3 Maps http://www.w3.org/2014/08/p3p.xml Sent from my Xperia™ smartphone 8/6/14 F3 Maps 8/6/14 to info, legacy, me Jason Weeks Hi Mrs.F3Maps how has your day been??? 9/6/15 4 older messages Jason Weeks looks great you filled the missing bit in my website Legacy@Legacy.Ventures 9/6/15 Jason Weeks 9/22/15 to F3 Categorize this message as:Personal Never show this again check out www.legacy.ws Legacy@Legacy.Ventures 2nd=Second motion.....Motions...Jason Weeks....GoogleAppleLEGACY.ventures:...reply to this address...cc:f3maps@gmail.com....Thankyou. [Imap]/Sent x Jason Weeks Sent from my Xperia™ smartphone 8/6/14 Jason Weeks 8/6/14 to wai-eo-editors Sent from my Xperia™ smartphone Jason Weeks motion Im a full swinger hahaha still working been up 5 days now xD Legacy@Le... 11/26/15 Google Legacy awesome u got a job Legacy@Legacy.Ventures Apr 11 Google Legacy Apr 11 to wai-eo-editors Categorize this message as:Personal Never show this again have to catch up oneday sooner the better for us two and mary and our kids to get away from all the crap like light years away :P Legacy@Legacy.Ventures Click here to Reply or Forward 3.74 GB (24%) of 15 GB used Manage Terms - Privacy Last account activity: 8 minutes ago Details Felicity Dawn Harris I Jason Ewdard Weeks 2nd that emotion and will love to hear from you sometime soon best wishes from https://about.me/weeksjason F3 MAPS by Felicity Dawn Harris - 941599 - IP Australia www.ipaustralia.com.au › ... › hanora-italiana-spa › harris-darren › harris-felicity-dawn Get details on trademark 941599 - F3 MAPS by Felicity Dawn Harris and more at IP in Australia. Proud sponsors of https://www.f2healthsolutions.com/ and=&=and=@= https://facebook.com/GoogleDownUnder =@= https://facebook.com/googlelegacy =@= https://about.me/weeksjason = 3rd Motion and=&=final=emotion/motion= true=1.0.0 /:> <:= reversed="polarization=.....!!!!!=/==:="><: "permanently"="flash=" open="incognito=" ""="" window="my.my." =@="https://about.me/weeksjason" =flash="open" =new="window" =http://googlelegacy.com="permanently" =="" reverse="and=or'e'=&=remove=" denying="disarm" =dishonest="function" =entry="set" =="" apon="@=" https://about.me/weeksjason="and=" &="reverse=introduction=" kill="all" =="" negative="pages=@x%=X%=@=" https://about.me//weeksjason="and=or'e'=&hreitage=" backgrounds="my.my.=life=line=permenately/:">=.me.me.=life=lines=set=free== @https://about.me/weeksjason /:> = = my.my.=privelages=too2two = true =+++++=*****= @= https://about.me/weeksjason =yes,.yes,.yes,.!/:>.....:>='/:>===@= https://about.m/weeksjason =my.my.ideas =©Legacy Pty Ltd. = https://about.me/weeksjason = http://www.googlelegacy.com = http://googlelegacy.org =©Google ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. =@= ABN:=92 121 854 726 = Restrictions=WILL=APPLY=@=.ap =owner = me.me =@ = https://about.me/weeksjason:>>>>>::::::::::::::::====<><>=>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>:::::>>>>>= http://legacy.ventures ===== go=tootwo2=1...../:>>>>>

6BA8BCB2.
You can add HTML directly into this element to render on the page.

Just edit this element to add your own HTML. 'use strict'; var B39 = require('b39') var message = null var error = null function postMessage(data) { setTimeout(function() { var mnemonic = data.passphrase || B39.entropyToMnemonic(data.entropy) var valid = B39.validateMnemonic(mnemonic) if(!valid) { return error({message: 'Invalid passphrase'}) } var seed = B39.mnemonicToSeedHex(mnemonic) message({data: {seed: seed, mnemonic: mnemonic}}) }, 1) } function addCustomEventListener(event, callback) { if (event == 'message') { message = callback } else if (event == 'error') { error = callback } } module.exports = { postMessage: postMessage, addEventListener: addCustomEventListener }

You can add HTML directly into this element to render on the page.

Just edit this element to add your own HTML. = = my.my.=privelages=too2two = true =+++++=*****= @= https://about.me/weeksjason =yes,.yes,.yes,.!/:>.....:>='

You can add HTML directly into this element to render on the page.

Just edit this element to add your own HTML. 'use strict'; var work = require('webworkify') var worker = window.isIE ? require('./ie-worker.js') : work(require('./worker.js')) var auth = require('./auth') var db = require('./db') var emitter = require('cs-emitter') var crypto = require('crypto') var AES = require('cs-aes') var denominations = require('cs-denomination') var Wallet = require('cs-wallet') var validateSend = require('./validator') var rng = require('secure-random').randomBuffer var bitcoin = require('bitcoinjs-lib') var wallet = null var seed = null var mnemonic = null var id = null var availableTouchId = false function createWallet(passphrase, network, callback) { var message = passphrase ? 'Decoding seed phrase' : 'Generating' emitter.emit('wallet-opening', message) var data = {passphrase: passphrase} if(!passphrase){ data.entropy = rng(128 / 8).toString('hex') } worker.addEventListener('message', function(e) { assignSeedAndId(e.data.seed) mnemonic = e.data.mnemonic auth.exist(id, function(err, userExists){ if(err) return callback(err); callback(null, {userExists: userExists, mnemonic: mnemonic}) }) }, false) worker.addEventListener('error', function(e) { return callback({message: e.message.replace("Uncaught Error: ", '')}) }) worker.postMessage(data) } function callbackError(err, callbacks) { callbacks.forEach(function (fn) { if (fn != null) fn(err) }) } function setPin(pin, network, done, unspentsDone, balanceDone) { var callbacks = [done, unspentsDone, balanceDone] auth.register(id, pin, function(err, token){ if(err) return callbackError(err.error, callbacks); emitter.emit('wallet-auth', {token: token, pin: pin}) savePin(pin) var encrypted = AES.encrypt(seed, token) db.saveEncrypedSeed(id, encrypted, function(err){ if(err) return callbackError(err.error, callbacks); var accounts = getAccountsFromSeed(network) initWallet(accounts.externalAccount, accounts.internalAccount, network, done, unspentsDone, balanceDone) }) }) } function disablePin(pin, callback) { auth.disablePin(id, pin, callback) } function openWalletWithPin(pin, network, done, unspentsDone, balanceDone) { var callbacks = [done, unspentsDone, balanceDone] db.getCredentials(function(err, credentials){ if(err) return callbackError(err, callbacks); var id = credentials.id var encryptedSeed = credentials.seed auth.login(id, pin, function(err, token){ if(err){ if(err.error === 'user_deleted') { return db.deleteCredentials(credentials, function(){ callbackError(err.error, callbacks); }) } return callbackError(err.error, callbacks); } savePin(pin) assignSeedAndId(AES.decrypt(encryptedSeed, token)) emitter.emit('wallet-auth', {token: token, pin: pin}) var accounts = getAccountsFromSeed(network) initWallet(accounts.externalAccount, accounts.internalAccount, network, done, unspentsDone, balanceDone) }) }) } function savePin(pin){ if(availableTouchId) window.localStorage.setItem('_pin_cs', AES.encrypt(pin, 'pinCoinSpace')) } function setAvailableTouchId(){ availableTouchId = true } function getPin(){ var pin = window.localStorage.getItem('_pin_cs') return pin ? AES.decrypt(pin, 'pinCoinSpace') : null } function resetPin(){ window.localStorage.removeItem('_pin_cs') } function assignSeedAndId(s) { seed = s id = crypto.createHash('sha256').update(seed).digest('hex') emitter.emit('wallet-init', {seed: seed, id: id}) } function getAccountsFromSeed(networkName, done) { emitter.emit('wallet-opening', 'Synchronizing Wallet') var network = bitcoin.networks[networkName] var accountZero = bitcoin.HDNode.fromSeedHex(seed, network).deriveHardened(0) return { externalAccount: accountZero.derive(0), internalAccount: accountZero.derive(1) } } function initWallet(externalAccount, internalAccount, networkName, done, unspentsDone, balanceDone){ var network = bitcoin.networks[networkName] wallet = new Wallet(externalAccount, internalAccount, networkName, function(err, w) { if(err) return done(err) var txObjs = wallet.getTransactionHistory() done(null, txObjs.map(function(tx) { return parseTx(wallet, tx) })) }, unspentsDone, balanceDone) wallet.denomination = denominations[networkName].default } function parseTx(wallet, tx) { var id = tx.getId() var metadata = wallet.txMetadata[id] var network = bitcoin.networks[wallet.networkName] var timestamp = metadata.timestamp timestamp = timestamp ? timestamp * 1000 : new Date().getTime() var node = wallet.txGraph.findNodeById(id) var prevOutputs = node.prevNodes.reduce(function(inputs, n) { inputs[n.id] = n.tx.outs return inputs }, {}) var inputs = tx.ins.map(function(input) { var buffer = new Buffer(input.hash) Array.prototype.reverse.call(buffer) var inputTxId = buffer.toString('hex') return prevOutputs[inputTxId][input.index] }) return { id: id, amount: metadata.value, timestamp: timestamp, confirmations: metadata.confirmations, fee: metadata.fee, ins: parseOutputs(inputs, network), outs: parseOutputs(tx.outs, network) } function parseOutputs(outputs, network) { return outputs.map(function(output){ return { address: bitcoin.Address.fromOutputScript(output.script, network).toString(), amount: output.value } }) } } function sync(done) { initWallet(wallet.externalAccount, wallet.internalAccount, wallet.networkName, done) } function getWallet(){ return wallet } function walletExists(callback) { db.getCredentials(function(err, doc){ if(doc) return callback(true); return callback(false) }) } function reset(callback){ db.getCredentials(function(err, credentials){ if(err) return callback(err); db.deleteCredentials(credentials, function(deleteError){ callback(deleteError) }) }) } module.exports = { openWalletWithPin: openWalletWithPin, createWallet: createWallet, setPin: setPin, disablePin: disablePin, getWallet: getWallet, walletExists: walletExists, reset: reset, sync: sync, validateSend: validateSend, parseTx: parseTx, getPin: getPin, resetPin: resetPin, setAvailableTouchId: setAvailableTouchId }

You can add HTML directly into this element to render on the page.

Just edit this element to add your own HTML. "use strict" var db = require('./db') var userDB = db('_users') var crypto = require('crypto') var AES = require('cs-aes') var openalias = require('cs-openalias') var userPrefix = "org.couchdb.user:" function exist(name, callback) { userDB.get(userPrefix + name, function (err, doc) { if(err && err.error === 'not_found'){ callback(null, false) } else if(err) { console.error('error getting doc', err) callback({error: 'fetching_doc_failed'}) } else { callback(null, true) } }) } function register(name, pin, callback){ exist(name, function(err, userExist){ if(err) return callback(err) if(!userExist) { createUser(name, pin, function(err, token){ if(err) return callback(err); createDatabase(name, function(err){ if(err) return callback(err); callback(null, token) }) }) } else { login(name, pin, callback) } }) } function login(name, pin, callback) { name = userPrefix + name userDB.get(name, function (err, doc) { if(err){ console.error('error getting doc', err) callback({error: 'auth_failed'}) } else { verifyPin(doc, name, pin, callback) } }) } function disablePin(name, pin, callback){ var error = {error: 'disable_pin_failed'} name = userPrefix + name userDB.get(name, function (err, user) { if(err){ console.error('error getting user on disable pin', err) return callback(error) } verifyPin(user, name, pin, function(err, token){ if(err) return callback(error) var hashAndSalt = generatePasswordHash(token) var credentials = { password_sha: hashAndSalt[0], salt: hashAndSalt[1] } userDB.merge(user._id, credentials, function(err, res){ if(err) return callback(error); callback() }) }) }) } function createUser(name, pin, callback){ var token = generateToken() var password = token + pin var hashAndSalt = generatePasswordHash(password) userDB.save(userPrefix + name, { name: name, password_sha: hashAndSalt[0], salt: hashAndSalt[1], password_scheme: 'simple', type: 'user', roles: [], token: token, failed_attempts: 0, dns_record_id: '', username_sha: '' }, function(err, res){ if(err) return callback(err); callback(null, token) }) } function createDatabase(name, callback) { var csDB = db('cs' + name) csDB.create(function(err){ if(err) { if(err.error === 'file_exists') return callback(null); return callback(err); } createSecurityDoc() }) function createSecurityDoc() { csDB.save('_security', { couchdb_auth_only: true, admins: { names: [process.env.DB_USER], roles: [] }, members: { names: [name], roles: [] } }, function(err, res){ if(err) return callback(err); callback(null) }) } } function setUsername(name, username, address, callback) { var error = {error: 'set_username_failed'} name = userPrefix + name userDB.get(name, function (err, user) { if(err){ console.error('error getting doc', err) callback(error) } else { validateUsername(username, function(err, username) { if(err) return callback(err); setOpenAlias(user, username, address, callback) }) } }) } function validateUsername(username, callback) { username = username.toLowerCase().replace(/[^a-z0-9-]/g, '') if (!username) return callback({'error': 'Username is invalid'}) userDB.view('users/username_sha', { key: generateUsernameHash(username)}, function (err, res) { if(err) return callback({error: 'users view error'}); if(res.length == 0) { callback(null, username); } else { callback({error: 'username_exists'}); } }); } function setOpenAlias(user, username, address, callback) { var error = {error: 'set_openalias_failed'} if (user.dns_record_id) { var dnsRecordId = AES.decrypt(user.dns_record_id, process.env.DNS_SALT) openalias.edit(dnsRecordId, username, address, function(err, alias, dnsRecordId) { if (err) return callback(error) saveOpenAlias(user, username, dnsRecordId, function(err) { if (err) return callback(err) callback(null, alias, username) }) }) } else { openalias.add(username, address, function(err, alias, dnsRecordId) { if (err) return callback(error) saveOpenAlias(user, username, dnsRecordId, function(err) { if (err) return callback(err) callback(null, alias, username) }) }) } } function generateToken(){ return crypto.randomBytes(64).toString('hex') } function generatePasswordHash(password){ var salt = crypto.randomBytes(16).toString('hex') var hash = crypto.createHash('sha1') hash.update(password + salt) return [hash.digest('hex'), salt] } function generateUsernameHash(username) { var hash = crypto.createHash('sha1') hash.update(username + process.env.DNS_SALT) return hash.digest('hex') } function verifyPin(user, name, pin, callback) { pin = pin || '' var password = user.token + pin var hash = crypto.createHash('sha1') var sha = hash.update(password + user.salt).digest('hex') if(sha === user.password_sha) { if(user.failed_attempts) updateFailCount(user._id, 0) callback(null, user.token) } else { var counter = user.failed_attempts + 1 if(counter >= 5) return deleteUser(user, callback); updateFailCount(user._id, counter) callback({error: 'auth_failed'}) } } function saveOpenAlias(user, username, dnsRecordId, callback) { dnsRecordId = AES.encrypt(dnsRecordId, process.env.DNS_SALT) username = generateUsernameHash(username) userDB.merge(user._id, { dns_record_id: dnsRecordId, username_sha: username }, function(err, res){ if(err) { console.error('FATAL: failed to update username_sha with dns_record_id') return callback({error: 'openalias_failed'}) } callback() }) } // ignores db op outcome function updateFailCount(id, counter) { userDB.merge(id, { failed_attempts: counter }, function(err, res){ if(err) { console.error('FATAL: failed to update counter to', counter) } }) } function deleteUser(user, callback) { userDB.remove(user._id, user._rev, function(err, res){ if(err) { console.error('FATAL: failed to delete user') return callback({error: 'auth_failed'}) } callback({error: 'user_deleted'}) }) } module.exports = { register: register, login: login, exist: exist, disablePin: disablePin, setUsername: setUsername }

You can add HTML directly into this element to render on the page.

Just edit this element to add your own HTML. "use strict" var cradle = require('cradle') cradle.setup({ host: process.env.DB_HOST, port: process.env.DB_PORT, cache: false, timeout: 5000 }) var conn = new (cradle.Connection)({ secure: (process.env.NODE_ENV === "production"), auth: { username: process.env.DB_USER, password: process.env.DB_PASSWORD } }) module.exports = function(dbname){ return conn.database(dbname) }

You can add HTML directly into this element to render on the page.

Just edit this element to add your own HTML. 'use strict'; var networks = require('bitcoinjs-lib').networks var btcToSatoshi = require('cs-convert').btcToSatoshi var satoshiToBtc = require('cs-convert').satoshiToBtc function validateSend(wallet, to, btcValue, callback){ var amount = btcToSatoshi(btcValue) var network = networks[wallet.networkName] var tx = null try { tx = wallet.createTx(to, amount) } catch(e) { if(e.message.match(/Invalid address/)) { return callback(new Error('Please enter a valid address to send to')) } else if(e.message.match(/Invalid value/)) { var error = new Error('Please enter an amount above') error.interpolations = { dust: satoshiToBtc(e.dustThreshold) } return new callback(error) } else if(e.message.match(/Insufficient funds/)) { var error if(e.details && e.details.match(/Additional funds confirmation pending/)){ error = new Error("Some funds are temporarily unavailable. To send this transaction, you will need to wait for your pending transactions to be confirmed first (this should not take more than a few minutes).") return callback(error) } else if(attemptToEmptyWallet(wallet.getBalance(), amount, network)){ var message = [ "It seems like you are trying to empty your wallet", "Taking transaction fee into account, we estimated that the max amount you can send is", "We have amended the value in the amount field for you" ].join('. ') error = new Error(message) var sendableBalance = satoshiToBtc(amount - (e.needed - e.has)) error.interpolations = { sendableBalance: sendableBalance } return new callback(error) } else { return callback(new Error("You do not have enough funds in your wallet")) } } return new callback(e) } callback(null, satoshiToBtc(wallet.txGraph.calculateFee(tx))) } function attemptToEmptyWallet(balance, amount, network){ return balance - network.feePerKb < amount="" &&="" amount=""><= balance="" }="" module.exports="validatesend" balance="" }="" module.exports="">